English, Français

Script 112.5

Script

Save and edit this resource as a Word document.

Gabatarwa

 

Me yasa wanan maudu’in ke da mahimmanci ga masu sauraro?

Saboda masu noman dankali su sani:

  • Lokacin da dankali ya kai girbe.
  • Alamomi da ke nuna cewa dankalin ya isa girbe.
  • Lokacin rana da yanayin gari da ya dace ayi girbin dankali.
  • Yadda ake girbin dankali.
  • Yadda ake tantantacewa da kuma jerin matsayin.
  • Yanayin da suka dace ana ajiye dankali.
  • Hanyoyin da suka fi kyau wurin sufirin dankali.
  • Tsawon lokacin da ya dace a kula da dankali bayan girbe.

Menene gaskiyar wasu abubuwa?

  • Dankalin turawa na nuna ne tsakanin sati 10-14 bayan shuka. Idan ya nuna, ganyen san a komawa yelo ya fara yaushi.
  • Idan ganye yayi yelo, tushen sa ya isa girbi. A wanan matakin, zaa iya raba tushen nasa da jijjiya* (karan karkashin kasa).
  • A kasha ciyayi ta hanyar tsigewa ko yankewa a kalla kwana 10-14 kafin girbi dan a tabbatar da fatar tushen ta yi tauri.
  • Duk lokacin da ya samu, ana so ayi girbi a madaidaiciyar yanayin sanyi da rana. Wanan yana sa tushen ya bushe ya kuma tauri da wuri, dan saukin cire kasa daka jikin dankalin.
  • Ka tabatar da kasar wurin tayi laushi dan gudun gurje dankalin daka duwatsu lokacin girbe.
  • Idan dankalin ya nuna, fatar bata sabewa dan an matsa da yan yatsu
  • Kayi girbi ta hanyar kama busheshen ganyen ka tsige ko kuma haka da fatanya, shevur ko kuma ingin girbe.
  • Idan bishiyar ta cigaba dagirma lokacin da tushen ya isa girbi, ka cire duk ganyen dake girma dan tsayar da tushen kar ya cenja girma ya lalace.
  • Ka tabbatar dankali ya bushe kuma fes-fes yake kafin kasa shi wurin ajiya.
  • Kula da dankali na sawa su warke daka ciwuna sanan ya kara musu kariya daka lalacewa.
  • Domin kare dankali da ka ciwo da gurjiya, kar ka sasu a cikin buhu da ya wuce nauyi 50kg.

Domin Karin bayanin, duba mukala 1, 6, 8, 9, da 12.

Menene baban kalubale wurin kula da dankalin turawa?

  • Kwari da cutuka da suke afkawa dankalin a wurin ajiya.
  • Hanyoyin girbi da suke jiwa tushen ciwuka.
  • Girbi a cikin yanayi mai danshi, yana kara samuwa cututuka.
  • Ajiya dankali a yanayi mara kyau.

Bangaren Jinsi a wurin kula da dankali bayan girbi

  • A kasar Malawi, cinikayya dankalin yafi amfanan maza akan mata.
  • A yankin sahara Afirka, mata sun tsunduma wurin girbi da sufirin dankali.
  • A wani bangaren Guinea, mata ne ke da alhakin yawan aikin hannu da kuma girbi na dankali.
  • A kasar Uganda, mata sunfi karfi wurin shuka dankalin a gona, amma basu da karfi a wurin cinikayya sa da kuma zaben shukan da zaayi.

Domin Karin bayani, duba mukala 3, 5, 7, da 10.

Hasashen tasirin sauyin yanayin a wurin gudanar da girbi dankalin turawa

  • A bangaren arewa da tsakiyar Jahar kasar Plateau ta Nigeria, samar da dankalin turawa yana dunkushewa saboda matsalar sauyin yanayi kamar fari, ambaliya ruwa, da ruwan sama ba lokacin damuna ba.
  • A kasar Afirka ta Kudu, fari da zafin yanayi ya rage yelwar dankalin turawa a duka yankunan da ake samar dashi a kasar.
  • A Njoro, kasar Kenya, karuwa zafin gari ya kara yaduwa kwari a cikin dankali.
  • A kasar Afirka ta Kudu, masana bincike sunyi hasashe cewa yawan kwarin aphid zai karu a wasu wurare da ake shuka dankali a shekara 2050, which zai hadasa karuwa cututuka a dankali.
  • A garin Mekelle a yankin arewacin Ethiopia, dadewa yanayin zafi da kuma zuwan damuna a karshen lokaci ya kawo sanadiyar raguwar yalwar dankali.

Domin Karin bayani, duba mukala 2, 4 da 11.

Muhimman bayanai game da gudanar da girbin dankalin turawa

Kafin-Girbi

Manoma su kula da wadanan ayyukan kafin girbi:

  • Domin rage kurjewa da cututuka, ka kawar da duk wata ciyawa sati 2-3 kafin girbi ta hanyar amfani da maganin ciyawa, ko kuma danewa da kafa ka tsige tun daka tushe, ko kuma yankewa. A wasu kasashe ana samun maganin ciyayi mai inganci, hade da wanda suke dauke da sinadirin gishirin ammoniya.
  • Wata daya kafin girbi, manoma zasu iya girbewa da kuma auna nauyin dankalin daka shuka 10 zuwa 20 dan su kimanta duka yawan da kuma kudin da zasu shigo akan kasar su.
  • Dankali ya isa girbi idan fatar tayi tauri kuma bata zagon yewa idan aka matsa da yan yatsu.

Girbi

Manoma su girbe dankali lokacin da bishiyar ta bushe ta mutu. A wanan lokacin, ganyen sun zama yalo, sunyo yaushi, sun bushe kuma fatar tayi kauri da tauri.

  • Duk lokacin da ya samu, ayi girbi da rana gari ya danyi sanyi dan a tabbatar da danshi daka tushen ya bushe da kuma kasar da take hade da tushen ta zube cikin sauki.
  • Ka baza tushen na awanin biyu sai sun bushe, kafin ka sasu a wurin ajiya.
  • Idan kayi girbi ana ruwan sama, ka busar dashi acikin rumfa kafin ka sa a wurin ajiya.
  • Bacin ka tsige bushashiyar bishiya, ka girbe tushen a hanakali da fatanya, sanda da aka sarafa, ko kuma shavul mai yan yatsu.
  • Lokacin girbi, ka duba cikin kasa sosai ko da ragowar tushen.
  • Bacin girbi, ka tatara ragoway shuka kamar bishiya, tushe mara kyau ka kona su a wuri daban da gonar ka, dan kare gurbatar da tushe masu kyau.
  • Ka da ka ajiye girbin a cikin rana ko kuma wuri mai danshi, dan kariya da kamuwa da cuta kama rubewa.

Sufiri

Ka tatattara kayi sufirin dankali zuwa wurin da zaa auna su, a kula da su a ajiye su. Ka tabbatar da anyi sufirin da wuri dan kariya daka kunar rana. Lokacin tattarawa dan sufiri, manoma su lura da:

  • Ana tattara dankali a cikin buhu da bai wuce nauyin 50kg ba dan rage yiyuwar jiwa dankalin ciwo.
  • Ana tattara dankali ne a cikin daya daka cikin mazubin nan: wanda suke da kasa mai tsauri, ko kuma mazubi mai shafafen kasa ko wanda akayi masa ciko.
  • Jakar leda da ake amfani da shi sosai basu dace ba, saboda basa samar da iska sosai kuma suna kawo rubewa.
  • Jaka mai raga-raga aka fiso ayi amfani da ita.
  • Ka tatattara dankali ka zuba a buhu ko mazubi a hankali. Jefa dankali cikin buhu na kawo rauni ga dankali.
  • Domin kare danakali daka rauni, kasa buhu cikin motar sufiri a hankali akan jefawa cikin mota.
  • Kayi ciko da buhun-huna a cikin mota domin kariya domin girgiza wurin sufiri, wanda zai iya kawo rauni ga dankali.
  • Ka daure buhun dankali domin kariya ga mosti a lokacin sufirin sa.

Tantancewa

Tantancewa na banbanta tushe mai kyau da mara kyau, masu cuta da alamun cuta, da kuma sauran amfanin gona mara sa amfani. A tantance da mashin ko da hannu.

Tsaftacewa

Tsaftace dankali sosai a gona bai kamata ba, domin zai iya kawo matsala akan fatar dankali. Amma idan mai siya ya bukaci tsaftatacen dankali, ka wanke shi ta hanyar tsoma shi a cikin ruwa, wanan zai bada sauki wurin cire kasa da hannu daka jikin dankalin. A kyale ya bushe a cikin rumfa ko kuma a wuri da zai samu iska sosai. Domin a tabbatar da ya bushe sosai, manomi yana juya bayan dankali sau daya a rana.

Kulawa

Kulawa na temakawa dankali ya warke daka ciwuka, yana kuma rage samuwar rubewa bayan girbi kafin ajiya ko sufiri. Danakalin da aka kula dashi yafi dadewa a ajiya.

  • Kulawa na karawa dankali karfi wurin kariya daka lalacewa yana kuma rage zubar da ruwan dankalin
  • Kulawa na taimakawa wurin kula da ya mustewa da kuma rubewa cutar bakteriya.

Jerin Matsayi

Jerin matsayin na raraba dankali bisa girman tushe yana kuma sausaka zaben kashin dankalin wurin siyarwa. Ko wace kasa tana da nata jerin matsayin na girman dankali. Ana iya rarabawa da hannu ko kuma mashin.

  • Jeranta matsayin dankali na taimakawa mai siye da siyarwa su yarda akan kudi bisa girman dankali.
  • Jerin matsayi na tabbatar da adalci tunda girman dankali ne ke samar da farashi.
  • Jerin matsayin na sa masu siye su zabi dankali a bisa abun da suke suyi amfani da shi. Misali; kinsta shi ko kuma ci a gidan abinci.

Ajiya

Ajiya ta kwarai itace barin dankali ba kwari ba cututuka. Ajiya mai inganci na amfana da manoma wurin kyale su guji sayar da shi da arha wanda yawansa a kasuwa ke kawo, dan su siyar a lokacin da yayi tsada.

  • Danakali ya zama ya bushe kuma a tsaftace lokacin ajiya. Danshi na amfanar da ruma da kuma cuta bakeria, saboda wurin ajiya dake dauke da dankali dole ya zamanto akwai wurin shan iska sosai.
  • Domin ingantaciyar ajiya, yi amfani da wadanan abubuwan:
    • Wurin dake da iska. Ya zamanto wurin ajiya nada duhu a dankalin da za’a ci.
    • Wurin ajiya ya zamanto yana da sanyi, saboda gidan kasa da rufi na azara zasu taimaka.
    • Kar kasa dankali a cikin jakunkuna, kasa a akwaku ko kuma jera su.
    • Kar ka zubar da su a tangariya kasa saboda da danshi.
  • Shawara akan ajiya irin dankali:
    • A ajiye irin dankali a wuri da haske ke shiga.
    • Jerin dankali kada ya wuce sama da zurfi 3-4 a kan kanta.
    • Ka samar da wurin da iska ke shiga yake fita.
    • Kayi amfani da ganyen lantana camara dan kariya akan kwari.

Ire-Iren Wurin Ajiya

Kafin a ajiye dankali, manoma su yi feshin maganin kwari. Manoma su ajiye tsaftatacen dankali a yanayi mai kyau. Dankalin da aka ajiye da kyau na iya tsawon watani hudu.

Gidan rangadi: Za’a iya tara dankali a gidan rangadi mai iska a rufe shi da busheshen bambaro. Dandalin kasar dakin zai iya zama na katako ko kuma kasa, a kuma tsaftace wurin kafin a zuba dankalin. Tarun dankalin kar ya wuce mita biyu a tsayi.

Dakuna: Manoma na iya ajiye dankali a kwandon azara a jera su akan kanta a daki dake samun iska. Kar a ajiye shi sama da sati uku a cikin jaka. Jakunkuna a kwantar dasu ba’a ajiye su a tsaye ba.

Rumbu: Manoma na iya ajiye dankali a cikin rumbu da yayi sama da kasa, wanda ke samun iska, a tara ko kuma a jera a kiret din katako ko kuma kwandon azara.

  • Kana kula da dankali akai-akai dan gudun kamuwa da cututuka tushen dankali. Idan cutar tushe ta kama shi, ayi amfani da maganin kwari. Asa ganyen bishiya fure a tsakanin dankali dan korar cutar tushe.
  • A kula da dankali dan gano cututuka kamar su cutar dugwai, dugwan baki, dugwan fata, bushewa ko kuma rubewa.
  • Ana duba dankali akai-akai dan cire gurbatatu.

Domin Karin bayani, a duba mukala 1, 6, 8, 9 da 12.

Ma’anoni

 

Warkarwa: Kara taurin bawon dankali da kuma kara yawan kwanakin ajiya a daki mai iska da sanyi da kuma duhu.
Yadi: karamar bishiya da ke fitowa a kasa da girman ta baya wuce karkashin kasa.

Aina za’a iya samun wasu bayanai akan wanan maudu’in?

 

Takardu

1. AG Marknet, undated. Post Harvest Profile of Potato. https://agmarknet.gov.in/Others/profile-potato.pdf (851 KB)
2. Bulus, H. and Nimfa, D.T., 2017. Effects of Climate Change on Irish Potatoes Farming in Plateau: A Study of North and Central Zones of Plateau State, Nigeria. http://ijecm.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/51117.pdf (605 KB).
3. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2010. Strengthening potato value chains. http://www.fao.org/3/i1710e/i1710e.pdf (5.67 MB)
4. Gebremedhin, Y. and Berhe, A. A., 2015. Impact of Climate Change on Potato Yield (Solanum tuberosum L.) At Mekelle Areas, in Northern Ethiopia. https://www.idosi.org/wjas/wjas11(2)15/2.pdf (206 KB)
5. Mbowa, S., and Mwesigye, F., 2016. Investment Opportunities and Challenges in the Irish Potato Value Chain in Uganda. https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/253560/files/14%20Investment%20opportunities%20and%20challenges%20in%20the%20potato%20value%20chain%20in%20Uganda.pdf (3.52 MB)
6. Meyhuay, M., 2001. Potato: Post-harvest Operations. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/inpho/docs/Post_Harvest_Compendium_-_Potato.pdf (2.13 MB)
7. Mudege, N. N., 2015. Gender norms and the marketing of seeds and ware potatoes in Malawi. http://agrigender.net/uploads/JGAFS-122015-2.pdf (530 KB)
8. National Potato Council of Kenya, 2013. A Guide to Potato Production and Postharvest Management in Kenya. https://npck.org/Books/potato%20production%20manual.pdf (2.49 MB).
9. Shrestha, H.K., 2016. Potato Seed Tuber Production Techniques Manual. https://www.jica.go.jp/nepal/english/office/others/c8h0vm0000bjww96-att/tm_4.pdf (2.38 MB).
10. Tatwangire, A. and Nabukeera, C., 2017. Technical report Market and Value Chain Analysis of Ware Potato from Eastern Uganda with a focus on postharvest management practices and losses. https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/89337/RTB-Endure-TReport-Market-value-chain-ware-potato-Uganda.pdf?sequence=1 (4.15 MB).
11. Walubengo, D., undated. Community-led action to use forestry in building resilience to climate change: a Kenyan case study Njoro Division, Nakuru District, Kenya. https://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G02310.pdf (290 KB).
12. Wasukira, A., et al, 2017. Ware potato harvesting and storage techniques Guidelines for harvesting and storage management of ware potato. https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/82788/RTB-Endure-Ware-Potato-Harvesting-and-storage-techniques.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (2.94 MB).

Acknowledgements

Yabo
Gudunmuwa daka: James Karuga, Dan Jarida noma, a kasar Kenya
Bitar aikin daka: Lucas Garba, Malamin gona, Maaikatar Habaka noma ta Jahar Plateau, Jos, Nigeria; Anthony Danbaba, Mai Gudanarwa, Cibiyar Binciken Jijiyoyin Amfanin-Gona ta kasa, reshan bincciken dankali dake Jos, Plateau; da Peter Gildemacher, KIT Royal Tropical Institute. Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Wanan aikin an dauki gudanar dashi ne daka gudumuwar kudi da “Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH” (GIZ) ya bayar, wanda suke gudanar da cibiyar “Green Innovation” tare da hadin gwiwar AFC Agriculture and Finance Consultants.