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Script 89.7

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Nemar sani game da sauyin yanayi nada amfani ga manoma sabili da tasiri sa    ga harakar gona. Manoma zasu iya sa ran gannin yanayin zafi/sannyi da cida kai da kai,ambaliya da fari.Yanayi zai sassake kwarai da kuma wahalar kirdadawa.Manoma na bukatan fahimtar sauyin yanayi da ainihin yanayi su tsara sauyi sa sakiyan albarkatu, karanci ruwa da kuma yiwuwan samun karin kwari da cututtuka.

Wannan matakin na samar da ainihin bayani a kan sauyin yanayi ya taimake ka shirya shirye-shiryen rediyo kan zance: Zaka  iya fada wa manomar jihar ka wasu daga cikin hannyoyin da sauyin yanayi ke shafar manoma.  Sai ka iya tattauna dabarun da kananan manoma zasu yi amfani su kuma yi nasarar sajewa da sauyin yanay.Wanaan rubutun na samar da wasu.This article provides some. Yi zance da manoma su ga yanda ayukan suke tare da sauyi yanayi. Sun gano sabbi aikaceceniya, ko amfani da hannyar gargajiya da  ya taimake su sajewa da sauyin yanayi? Domin taimaka maka gudanar da shiri akan sauyin yanayi.Mun rubuce tsofin rubutu Farm Radio International zaka iya gano taimakon sa.

Script

Yanda dimamen duniya ke shafar yanayi
Kusan kowa ya ji labarin “dimamen duniya” ko “sauyin yanayi” Yanyin na sauyawa duniyar na dimi saboda harakokin mutane- kamar kona gawayi, mai , iskar gas domin makamashi- na kara matsayin“Matattaran iskar gas” a cikin yanayin duniya.Waddan nan iskar,da suka hada da carbon dioxide, methane da nitrous oxide, na hana wasu zafin rana dawowa su haskaka wuri..Zafi na tsare ne a cikin yanayin duniya,wadda ke kara yanayin zafi da sannyi a ban kasa Sabili da Kari a “matattarar iskar gas” a cikin yanayi,zafi da sannyi ,duniyar ana nuni tsakanin digir 1.5 da 4 kamin shekara 2100.Wannan baya nuna yawa,amma tare da sauyin ruwan hadari, zai yi babban tasiri akan manoma.

Idan yanayin zafi da sannyi na yin sama, zai shafi yanayin dukan duniyoyi (Planet) gaba daya ta hannya daban daban.Fari zai tsananta kwarai a wasu wuraren,samma ma wuraren dake da ciyawa a Africa,inda ake sa idon ganin ruwan hadari zata yi kasa ta zamo ba’a iya nuninta daga shekara zuwa shekara.A lokacin da yanayin zafi/sannyi ke tashi sama, zai shafi kasar noma, kogi da danshin rafi su bi iska da sauri sauri daga doron kasa.A yayin da kasar gona ke kara bushewa ,zai kara karfi sosai a iya dasa shukin dake bukatan danshi da yawa,kamar masara.

A wasu wuraren, samma ma jihohin bakin teku, yanayi zafi/sannyi mai tsanani zai taho tare da ruwan sama mai tsanani.Kasashen bakin teku da kananan tsibirai zasu shiga cikin hadarin gaske daga karuwan matsayin teku da guguwa mai karfin gaske.Misali, zai shafi Lagos da wasu biranen Niger. Harakar gona bakin teku irin gonar kwakwan miya da gonar kwakwan tagara a kasar Benin da Côte d’Ivoire zasu iya fuskantan hadarin ambaliya, zai iya albarka a bakin tekun Kenya.

Ta yaya dimamen yanayi zai shafi harakar gonar cikin gida?

Mu riga mun nuna yanda muhimmin albarkatu irin masara zai yi wahalar shukawa a dalilin dimamen yanayi.Wasu albarkatu ma zai shafe su, samama ma inda ake da zafin rana da inda ake da zafin mara tsanani.Girbi nada alamar raguwa sabili da:

  • Mafi yawancin irin shinkafa baza suyi ‘ya’ya ba idan yanayin zafi ya tsananta, kuma
  • Za’a samu ruwa kadan ga albarkatu idan ruwan sama tayi kasa tashi danshin ruwa tayi yawa

Haka kuma zai shafi sarafa abinci ta:

  • Karin yawa-yawan tsananin guguwa,ambaliya da fari,
  • Tsawon lokacin tsira a unguwanin mai sannyin kwarai
  • Muhimmin sauyi wurin rarraba da adadin kifi da halitun teku, da
  • Yiwuwan Karin kwari da cututtuka.

Waddan nan wasu muhimman tasirin dimamen yanayi a Afica:

  • Karuwan ffari zai yi mmatukar rage adadin abincin da za’a samu
  • Albarkatun hatsi zasu yi kasa da kashi 63- 79 bisa dari
  • Albarkatun kifi daga ruwa mai kyau zai karu, ko da yake hadewar nau’in kifi zai tabu.A yayin da wasu nau’in kifi zasu ji dadin idan yanayi ta yi sama, wasu nau’in kuma basu saba da tsananin yanayi ba, yawan su zai yi kasa.
  • Kalunbalen kudan cizo zata yalwanta zuwa kudancin Zimbabawe da Mozambique, ta zarce yammancin Angola, da arewancin Tanzania.Daidai wannan lokacin, yawan su zai karu a wasu unguwannin inda a yanzu suke.

Mai manoma zasu iya yi?

Manoma acikin masu saularen ka dama can na amfani da ingantatu hannyoyi na rage lalacewa daga yanayi. Zaka iya basu kwarin gwiwan yin da dama akan matakan lalacewa, kuma su rungumi habaka hannyoyin su. Misali,Lalacewar biyun nan kasar gona da ruwa zai kara kyamari da daimamen duniya.Don haka matakan kare kasae gona da ruwa zasu yi matukar amfani.

Idan kana tsara shirye-shiryen radiyon ka, kayi zance da kwararu na gida(cibiyoyin bincike,ma’aikatan kula da yanayi,jami’o’i da ofissin FAO dake kasar ka) ko gano yanda sauyin yanayi zai shafi jihar ka.Ta nan zaku iya tattauna matakai da zasu yi amfani ga manomar dake saularen shirin ka.Yi zance da manoma ka samu jawabin su ko dabarun nan su dace da unguwan su. Zaka so ka koma ga rubutun Farm Radio International da suka wuce.Mun lura da wasu rubutun zasu iya taimakawa.

1. Idan unguwanku baya iya tsaya wa guguwa, guguwar hurricanes, guguwar typhoons da ambaliya:

  • Shuka bishiya (Misali, mangoro) su kare jihar bakin teku daga ambaliya da yashewa
  • Shuka albarkatu dake iya dan tsayawa iska mai tsanan Albarkatu masu jijiyoyi ne zabi mai kyau (Dubi rubutun 58.11 – shuka da cin doya mai sinadirai) Kiyaye amfani da hannyar sara da kona filin noma .
  • Kiyaye dasa shuki masu gajeran zamani akan gangare mai sulbi. (Dubi rubutunt 44.9 – kare kasar gona da gangaren fili)
  • Kafa shingayen bishiya da ciyawa su tsare yashewa (Dubi rubutun 43.3 – Hana yashwa da ciywar vetiver)
  • Riki filin gona ka bari daji ya masa rufi ko rufe kasar da ciyawa kowani lokaci: (Dubi rubutun: 34.1 – Da yawan rufewa da ciyawa; 50.4 – Manomar Nicaragua sun kalubalance El Nino; 58.5 – Shuka takin kan ka ta shuka albarkatu masu rufi da masara; 64.2 –Kare kasar gona na kiyaye fili,ko da ma guguwan hurricane ta kada)
  • Yi amfani da amintantun kayan shuki ka kafa kariyan iska. (Dubi rubutun 44.2 – Kariyan iska na kiyaye albarkatu da kasar gona)
  • Yi amfani da ilimin asali. (Dubi rubutu 60.3 – Wani manomin gida yayi nuni game da ambaliya)
  • Kiyeye awukuwan bala’, Regewa da Kubutowa: ra’ayin labarai ga radiyo Yi tssari sajewa da bala’i (Dubi rubutun 64.10 – Kiyaye bala’i, Regewa da Kubutowa: ra’ayin labarai ga radiyo)

Kiyaye jihohin bakin teku da gonar mangoro: Misali daga Asia
Guguwan typoon ta kada a bakin tekun Vietnam so takwas zuwa goma a shekara.Suna kariya kariyan tekun su lalata gonakin kifi kowani lokaci.Domin a samu shinge gaban ababan kariyan a kuma kiyaye filin bakin teku , Vietnam Red Cross ta shuka bishiyoyin mangoro mai fadin hecta 2000 .Ana kuma amfani da gonar mangoron a girbi da cinikin halitan teku masu daraja irin su jatalalle,kaguwa da hakin teku.Lokaci kadan da gamawar su,akayi guguwan da tafi kowanne acikin shekaru dari tsanani da ta shafi gonar mangoron . Amma ba wani gagarumin lalacin ababan kariyan da tsarin tafkunan gonar kifi.

2. Idan unguwarka na fuskanta barazanar nyuwa,lalacewar daji, da kasar gona da ruwa:

A busasun unguwa, ana nuna cewa ruwan sama kadan da yawan tashin ruwa a iska zai lalata kasar gona da ruwa, kuma tana hanzarta harakokin lalata daji.Manaoma zasu nemi su gudanar da aikin kare kasar gona da ruwa. Zasu iya yi:

  • Tarawa da adanar ruwan dake kwarara. (Dubi rubutun: 54.3 – Lambu a yayin da kake shayarwa ;7 – Tara ruwan hadari daga rufin ka)
  • Yi amfani da hannyar tsare kasa dake kare kasar gona da ruwa, kuma ya rage yashewa (Kara takin gargajia ga kasar gona, kamar sharan gona,ruba shara da taki. (Dubi rubutun 33.9 – inda kayan sa za’a iya rubuwa , 47.8 – kayi wanui abu daga rashin abu a cikin lambun shara 616- Compost yayi zancen takin tara shara ) Shuka legumes ta taimaka wa takin kasar gona. (Dubi rubutunt 80.8 – Legumes na takin kan su – da taimakon abokan su)
  • Riki filin gona ka bari daji ya masa rufi kowani lokaci:.Yi amfani da albarkatu masu rufi (Dubi rubutun 2 – bunkasa albarkatun gonar shinkafa ba tare da ka sayi taki ba)
  • Gudanar da nomar gandun daji (Dubi rubutun: 55.7 – Wani manomi ya juya mahali mara kyau to zamo gandun daji, 1 – Zabi bishiyoyin da suka dace ka su tsira da albarkatun gona; 54.1 – Bishiyoyi da ruwan sama; 54.2 – Yanda bishiyoyi ke adanar ruwa kuma su kiyaye bubugowa; 58.4 – Shuka masara tare da bishiyoyi; 27.2 – Biashiyoyi a cikin lambu zai baka taki; 88.7 –Manomar Niger suna samun amfani daga barin bishiyoyi akan filayen su; 78.6 – Sake dasa bishiyoy nai al’umar na dawowa da ruwan sama a jihar Brong Ahafo ta kasar Ghana; 91.5 – “Idan ruwan sama ta sauka”: Rawan ganni da bishiyoyi da haki zasu taka na hana yahsewar kasar gona; 68.3 Yi gyaran fuska ga filin da ta lalace: dasa bishiyoyi a cikin ramukaGina rami shuki a unguwannin da suke busasu . (Dubi rubutun: 54.5 – shigar wa rami na awo ruwa ga albarkatun gona; 64.6 – Manami Phiri na da shigar wa rami wurin yaki da ffari)
  • Shuka albaratun gona dake iya tsaya wa fari da nau’in- nau’in albarkatun.( Dubi rubutun: 54.9 –Waddan na albakatun gona zasu taimake ka lokacin fari ;0 3 – Zabin albarkatu ga unguwan da fari ke damuwa)
  • Zabi kuma ka gwada tare da amfani, fasahar adana mai dogon zamani (Dubi rubutun: 48.10 – Yi amfani da tankwa mai zafi ka kare hatsin dake adane 8 Adanar gujiya na wani lokaci da dalili)

Habaka fasaha ga adanar dogon zamani

Idan zaka adana albarkatu na tsawon zamani, manoman Sudan sun zamanta matmura, hannyar ramin gargajiyar adanar hatsin su .Ta’a dance , manoman na zuba hatsin cikin rami har yayi tudu.Sai su shinmfida busasun gannye akai.Ramin suna da zurfin mita daya da rabi.Amma a yanzu manoman na haka ramuka mara zaurfi, kimani santi mita 50.Wannan na busar da hatsi abisa dalilai biyu.Na farko,yana hana yoyon ta tsatsagewa,Na biyu, danshi kadan zai shiga cikin hatsin.Tare da danshin ruwa kadan, za’a samu kwari kadan , wadda zai habaka darajar hatsin.Manomar sun kara yawan busasun gannye da suke dorawa akan hatsin.Yanzu kwanciiyar busasun gannye shine zurfin santimita 50 kuma yana kwaye ramin da akak cike da fadin mita daya .Waddannan sabbi hikiman sun kara wa’adin

3. Idan kana unguwan dake da tsananin sannyi:

A unguwannin dake da sannyi,lokacin shuki zai tsawon wata daya, ko mafi da haka.Ga wasu hannyoyi da zaku tattauna akan shirin ka.

  • Yi gwaji kuma zabi albarkatu da nau’in albarkatu da suka fi dacewa da sabuwar karin lokaci
  • Yi shuki da wuri wurin lokaci
  • Shuka albarkatun gannye mai gajeran zaman na biyu i ida zai yiwu. (Dubi rubutun 53.10 – harhada shuki: gun radiyo)
  • Shuka irin alkama masu iya tsayawa zafi da wasu albarkatu.

4. Idan zuban ruwan sama unguwar ka bata da tabas:

Adanar albarkatu mai amfani da tsawon lokaci zai yi amfani fiya da wasu lokatai ,Kuma,.zaka iya ba manoma shawara:

  • Tara ruwan sama da ruwan dake kwarara :. (Dubi rubutun: 44.3 –Rufin da aka gibta na rike ruwan samam masu amfani a kasa;7 – Tara ruwan sama daga rufi; 61.4 – Manoma da masana kimiya na tara ruwan sama a India; 76.9 – Wata mace na tara ruwa kuma tana shuka albarkatun gannye a lokacin rani; 71.8 – Tara ruwa nan amfani da ma’adanar cikin kasa)
  • Shuka albarkatu da zasu iya tsayawa fari da nau’in albarkatu: (Dubi rubutu 58.7 – Ga amfanim shuka da amfani da yatsar gero:.58.10 – Abokina dankalin turawa madogari). (
  • Yi amfani da kasar gona da hannyoyin kiyaye ruwa (Dubi rubutun 43.5 – Wata mace manomiya tana barin filin ta ba tare da ta yanke itatuwa ba; 54.5 – Rami da aka dasa bishiya na jawo ruwa ga albarkatu gona)
  • Gudanar da hannyoyin kiyaye kasar gona da ruwa: (Dubi rubutun 84.11 –Manoma zasu iya shirin kawo sauyan tsarin yanayi)

Wani misali tara ruwa a ban kasa

Za’a iya amfani da ramukan shuki a tara ruwa dake ban kasa.Irin wannan ramin shine ramin zai. Ramin zai hannyar gargajiya ce na tarawa da rike ruwan dake gudu.Ana amfani da sune ga kasar gona da ta lalace sosai da ruwa bata iya ratsa ta

Lokacin rani manoma na gina rami mai fadin santimita 20 x20 da zurfin santimita goma.Ana cike ramin da sharan gona ko sharan yin taki.Wanan ababa na jawo gara, su huda ramuka a cikin babban ramin.Waddan nan ramukan garan na kara yawan ruwan da zai shiga cikin kasar gona idan anyi ruwan sama.Gero da wasu albarkatun ana shuka su ne a cikin ramin zai din. A Burkina Faso, manoma dake amfani da wannan hannyar na habaka albarkatun gonar su so dayawa . Ramukan zai na kiyaye tsiro daga iska mai karfi.Ko dama ruwan sama yayi kasa ba kamar yanda aka saba ba.ramukan zai sun yi aiki kwarai cikin lamruka haka.

5. Shuka irin albarkatu daban daban da kiwon dabbobi daban daban:

A unguwanni da dama,manoma zasu iya samun amfanin shuka albarkatu dabn daban da kiwon dabbobi daban daban ,ko sakiyan dangogin shuki da dabbobi su magance matsalar sabon yanyin gona da zasu fuskanta.

Akan shirin ka ,zaka iya tattauna yanda za’a zabi sabbi da madadin albarkatu, ko nau’in albarkatu. Ga wasu ra’ayoyi:

  • Shuka albarkatu masu iya tsayawa gishiri ko iri idan kasar gona ta gurbata da gishiri.
  • Shukan albarkatun gona masu iya tsayawa fari-da zafi a unguwannin da zafi da fari ke karuwa domin sauyin yanayi.(Dubi rubutun: 58.7 – Ga amfanim shuka da amfani da yatsar gero:76.10 –Zai yi kyau manomar busasu unguwa su saka jarin su a nomar Mangoro <82.6 – Fonio)
  • Yanke shawarar kiwon kananan dabbobi. (Dubi rubutun: 80.1 da 80.2 Kiwon zomaye domin nama da riba, karo na farko da na biyu; 80.6 – Kiwon dodon kodi domin abinci da riba)
  • Shuka rogo inda ba tabasin ruwan sama , domin za’a iya adanar shi a cikin kasa na tsawon lokaci, kamin girbi.
  • Shuka gajerarru shinkafa a unguwannin dake da matsalar tsananin iska, sabili da sunfi iya tsayawa iska.
  • Shuka shinkafa da wasu albarkatu farko farkon shekara a unguwannin da yanayi zafi/sannyi keda babban matsala.Idan shjikafa na tofowa lokacin tsananin zafi, zai iya mutuwa.Wani dabara shine shuka iri dake tofowa da farar-safiya.hakan sai kana gujewa lokacin tsananin zafin ranar.

Acknowledgements

Gudunmuwa: Vijay Cuddeford, managing editor, Farm Radio International.
Nzari: Reviewed by: John Stone, Adjunct Research Professor, Carleton University.

Information Sources

• Boko, M., I. Niang, A. Nyong, C. Vogel, A. Githeko, M. Medany, B. Osman-Elasha, R. Tabo and P. Yanda, 2007: Africa (chapter on). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 433-467.
http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg2/ar4-wg2-chapter9.pdf
• FAO, undated. Some effects of global warming on agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Fax: +39.06.570.53023. http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/factfile/IMG/FF9721-e.pdf

• Laura S. Meitzner da Martin L. Price, 1996. Daga Amaranth zuwa Zai Holes: Ideas for Growing Food Under Difficult Conditions. Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization. ECHO, 17391 Durrance Road, North Fort Myers FL 33917-2239, USA. Tel: (941) 543-3246, Fax: (941) 543-5317. E-mail: ECHO@echonet.org.
http://www.echonet.org/content/AtoZ
• Nageeb Ibrahim Bakheit, Kees Stigter and Ahmed el-Tayeb Abdalla, 2001. Underground storage of sorghum as a banking alternative. ILEIA, Volume 17, Number 1, April 2001. http://subscriptions.leisa.info/index.php?url=getblob.php&o_id=12467&a_id=211&a_seq=0
Godiya ta musamman ga shirin e Climate Change Adaptation in Africa (CCAA) , hadin kan Canada’s International Development Research Centre (IDRC) da United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID), da taimaka wa shirya rubutu nan na rungumar sauyin yanayi.