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Script 112.2

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Gabatarwa

 

Me yasa wannan Maudu’in yake da mahimmanci ga masu sauraro?

Saboda masu noma da sarafa sababin tumatir bayan girbi ya dace su san:

  • Lokacin da ya dace ai girbin tumatir da yanda za’ai girbin na shi da kyau.
  • Yafi dacewa ayi girbin tumatir da Safiya saboda zafin rana.
  • Yadda za’a tantance da kuma jerin matsayin tumatir.
  • Yadda za’a tara a kuma ajiye tumatir domin kariya daka lalacewa.
  • Yadda za’a sa farashi na adalci lokacin siyar da tumatir.
  • Yadda za;a sarafa tumatir daka gida domin samun Karin kudin shiga.
  • Hanyar da ta dace ayi sifurun tumatir domin kariya lokacin siyarwa.
  • Kasuwanin da suka dace a siyar da sabin tumatir da kuma wanda aka sarafa.

Menene gaskiyar wasu abubuwa?

  • Kafin manoma su fara shuka tumatir, ya kamata suyi bincike su san ko akwai kasuwan tumatir da kuma farashin da ya dace a wanan shekara, su duba yiyuwa aiki da sauran manoman tumatir a unguwarsu dan su sabunta noman tumatir.
  • An fiso manoma su shuka irin tumatir da yake da tsawon rai.
  • Sababin tumatir da za’a siyar wa masu amfanin dasu a kasuwa an fiso a girbe sus una jajawu, wanda za’a kasuwanin nesa kuma an fiso a girbe su lokacin da suka fara juya launi domin kariya daka nuna sosai da lalacewa kafin suje kasuwa.
  • A ajiye tumatir a digiri 12 na maunin shelsiyos, da kuma kaso 86-90% na yanayin danshi a cikin iska. (Manoma da basu da halin siyan abuna una yanayin danshi a cikin iska zasu iya haduwa da sauran manoma su siya tare.)
  • Dakin sanyi mai makamashi sifili na iya rage zafi daka 10-15⁰C ya kuma rike danshi a 95%. Wanan na karawa tumatirin tsawon rai da kuma kwari.
  • Ana iya ajiye tumatir na sati 2-3 a yanayin zafi da baiyi kasa da 10 digiri na maunin selshious.
  • Wurin tantacewa, ka wanke tumatir bisa girman sa, launi, da kuma iri. Ka gudanar da tantancewa a wuri mai tsafta da yayi nesa da hasken rana.
  • Ka jera tumatir bacin wankewa ka shiryasu bisa girma, yanda suke a ido, da kuma kyau.
  • Ana saka tumatir a cikin kwalaye, kiret na roba, azara ko Kwando, akwatin kwatako, akwatin takada, ko kuma kiret na kwali.
  • Ka kara koren ganye ko ganyen ayaba, danyin ciko da kariya daka murkushewa lokacin taru.
  • A duk lokacin da ya samu, ayi sifirin tumatir a mota mao firinji. Wanan yana rage lalacewa tumatir da sifirin mota ke kawo wa. Idan babu firinji, ayi shimfida da tempol dan rage bushewa*.
  • Cika motar sifirin tumatir na iya janwo na iya janyo murkushewa tumatir da kuma wasu ciwuka.
  • Akawi kasuwar busheshen tumatir, manoma kar su kasa a gwiwa, wajen busar da tumatir a tsaftaciyar hanya idan babu kasuwa bayan girbi.
  • Da akwai masu raayi cewa ab una gari na da tsada. Amma ab una gari kamar iri, abubuwan kare amfanin gona, dss, na kara yawan amfanin gona, kudin shigowa, da kuma juriya ga cututuka, yana kuma taimakawa manoma su rage kasha kudin wurin noma.

Domin Karin bayanin, duba mukala 2, 3. 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, da 20.

  • Zafi mai yawa na janyo kananan tumatir, da zai janyo karamin kudi a kasuwa.
  • Karin zafi na iya janyo raguwar amfanin gona.
  • Ruwa lokacin damuna na janyo ambaliya da take shanye bishiyar tumari da sauran shukoki a gonaki. Dan haka yana da kyau a jinkirta shuka, a misali, yin shuka a lokuta daban-daban dan raba abun zubawa, ko kuma shuka tumatir a kan tudu.
  • Manoma a Tebora a yankin yamma na kasar Tanzania, sun fara shuka tumatir saboda kalubalen sauyin yanayi da yasa noman hatsi ke wahala.

Domin Karin bayanin, duba mukala 1, 4, da 9.

Menene baban kalubalen dake tattare da sifiri da kuma cinakayya tumatir?

  • Manoma na da karancin ilimin yadda zasu tara da kuma sifirin tumatir. Dan haka lalcewar ke janyo karancin kui a wurin siyarwa.
  • Manoma na girbin tumatir a yanayi guda. Wanan ke janyo yawan (cunkuso) sa a kasuwa, yake kawo karancin kudin siyarwa.
  • Karancin ilimi na manoma ta yadda zasuyi cinikin kayansu a kasuwa, wanda daya daka cikin dalilan shine rashin ajiye bayanan shukokin da suka gabata.
  • Manoma na shuka tumatirin da ba’a bukatar su a kasuwa.
  • Rashin ilimi na manoma wurin sanin lokacin da za’a tsinki tumatir dan amfani daban-daban, misali, tumatirin da za’a sarafa da kuma wanda za’ayi amfani shi yanzu.
  • Manoma nasan gudun asara bayan girbi, amma basu san yadda zasu saraafa danyen tumatir bayan girbi ba.
  • Sababin manoma zai iya yiwuwa basu san lokacin da ya dace suyi shukar tumatir ba dan su samu kudi sosai ba.
  • Manoma basa hadin gwiwa ba su sa kudi dan su samu ragi su kuma gina juna ta hanyar hadin kai da zai amfane su gaba daya tsakanin su da masu sayar musu da kaya. Misali, a Jahar Katsina, arewacin Nigeria, manoma sun hadu sun sai takin zamani cikin mota kai tsaye daka kamfanin takin zamani.
  • Manoma na noma tumatir mara inganci, mai tsawon rai kadan, dan haka yake janyo karancin kudi a wurin siyarwa.

Domin Karin bayanin, duba mukala 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, da 20.

Bangaren Jinsi a wurin sifirin tumatir da kuma cinikayya tumatir.

  • A garin Mbeye, dake kasar Tanzania, mata ne suka danne kasuwar saida tumatir, saboda sune ke da alhakin tabatar da abinci a gidajen su, su kuma maza basa so su sa kansu acikin sayarwa.
  • A jahar Kwara, Nijeriya, kaso 70% na masu saida tumatir mata ne.
  • A wasu al’adun a Afirka, ana tsamanin mata su zauna agida su kula da gida da yin aikace-aikace bas una zuwa kasuwa sai da tumatir da wasu abubuwa ba.
  • A wani wurare, addini da al’adu na kawo cikas wurin cudainiyar maza da mata a wurin cinikayya. Amma, mata na sa hannu a kanane wurare kamar sarafawa da kuma siyarda tumatir.

Domin Karin bayanin, duba mukala 19 da 20.

Bayana masu mahimmanci akan sifiri da cinikayya tumatir.

Tantancewa

Bayan girbi, manoma su tantance tumatir ta hanyar cire masu cututuka, wanda suka rube, ko tsagewa, mara sa kyau, masu wani irin launi, da masu dauke da kwari. Ana tantancewa a wuri mai sanyi, tsafta, da kuma kariya daka hasken rana. Tumatiren da suka fi yawa ana iya sasu karate mai haw-hawa.

Tantancewa da Jerin Matsayi

Bayan anyo girbin tumatir, masu tauri da kuma ja, ana wanke su, a tantance, a kuma jera su dan su gamsar da masu siya.

  • Ana tantance tumatir dan raraba masu cututuka, wanda suka rube, da tsagewa, da mara sa kyau.
  • Ana jera tumatir bisa girma, launi, nuna, inganci, haduwa, ire-ire da kuma matakin nuna su.
  • A tantance a wurin dake da sanyi da kuma tsafta ka kuma tabbatar da mutane masu tantancewa suna da tsafta, a misali, sun wanke hanayen su sun sa kaya masu tsafta.
  • Tarun tumatir masu kyau, na da sifa mai kyau, girman su da kala daya, kuma basu da cututuka, ko dugon baki, ragowar feshi, ko tsaga.
  • Kiret din tumatir ana iya wanke shi sodium bicarbonate (bekin hoda). Gram ashiri, na lita daya na ruwa, ana iya amfani dashi wurin wanke tumatir dan rage rubewa bayan girbi.

Ajin Jeri na cenjawa bisa kasashe. A wasu kasashen, ajin Jeri guda hudu ne: Aji 1, 2, 3, da kuma ajin karshe. Ajin uku na farko basa lalacewa, basu da saban ab una waje, wari na daban, cutar kwari, nakasa ko ciwo.

  • Aji 1: Tumatiren a kala girman su yaka milimita 50, suna da dan tauri, basu nuna sosai ba, girma su iri daya da kala, siffar sum ai kyau da kyan gani.
  • Aji 2: Tumatiren a kalla zasu kai milimita 40 a fadi, suna da tauri dai-dai, basu nuna cen ba, kyan gani, sifa mai kyau, da kuma daidaito a girma da kala.
  • Aji 3: Tumatiren a kalla zasu kai milimita 30 a fadi, suna da tauri, kyan gani (ba dugo ko lalacewa fata) kuma suna da girma da kala daban-daban.
  • Tumatiren ana iya jera su bisa aji uku na nauyi. Kananen tumatir nauyin na kasa gram 100, madaidaita nauyin ya kai gram 100-225, sai kuma manya wanda nauyin su ya wuce gram 255. Masu siyarwa na gida na amfani da wadanan kasafin wurin sayarwa a kasuwani.

Domin Karin bayanin, duba mukala 5, 6, 10, 13, da 17.

Noman Yanayi

Domin tabbatar da samun kudi, manoma dole su zabi lokacin noma da siyarwa. Idan manoma da yawa sukai shuka a lokaci daya, za’a samu cinkoso a kasuwa sai farashi yayi kasa, wanda zai janyo lalacewa, asara, da kuma asara kudi. Domin haka, an fiso manoma su jinkirta nomansu lokacin shuka dan cimma burin kasuwa da kuma daukar dama a lokacin karancin dan shuka tumatir. (shine, noman damuna a Nigeria.)

Dakin-Shuka da kuma gona

  • Manoma dake shuka tumatir a dakin-Shuka zasu fi saurin saka lokacin shuka tumatir fiye da wanda sukeyi a gona wanda suka dogara da ruwan sama.
  • Masu shuka a dakin-Shuka, na iya shuka a gaba daya shekarar, su samu kudi fiye da wanda suke shuka a gona.
  • A kasar Kenya da Nigeria, masu shuka a dakin-Shuka, wanda suke da tumatir da ya nuna a farkon damuna sun fi samun kudi sosai, saboda karancin tumatir a lokacin, akan wanda suka dogara da ruwan sama.
  • Manoma da yawa masu karamin karfi basu da kudi ko abin jingina da su bayar su samu bashi su sai kayaya kin da zasu gina dakin-Shuka.

Kunshewa

  • Za’a iya kunshe tumatir a kwali, kwandon sisal, akwatin katako da kwali, ko kuma kiret din roba, ayi ciko da ganyen ayaba dan rage kurjewa lokacin sifiri. Kunshewa a kwandon azara, bai da kyau dan yana hasada lalcewa bayan girbi.

Girbi zuwa Kasuwa

  • Tumatir sun isa girbi wata 3-4after bayan shuka, ya danganta da wana irin tumatir ne.
  • Bacin girbi, manoma zasu tantance da kuma jera tumatir bisa bukatun masu siya.
  • A wanke da kuma share tumatir da tabbata da cewa suna da tsafta.
  • Za’a iya ajiye tumatir a kiret din roba a daki da akayi feshin funfuna, kamar dakin sanyi, mai yanayi 10-15 na maunin selshious, ya kuma tsai da danshi a 95%. Manomi zai iya zaban ya sayar da tumatir a kofar shiga ga masu siya na gida, ko kuma ayi sifirin sa zuwa kasuwa. Hadakar kai da siyarwa a dunkulle na baiwa manoma karfin gwiwa yin cinikayya.

Sifiri

  • Sifiri ta hanyar da ta ba dace ban a iya janyo asara tumatir. Lokacin kunshewa, kar ka takure yayan itatuwa, girgiza mai yawa da motsi na janyo asara lokacin sifiri.
  • Duk lokacin da ya samu, manoma suyi amfani da motoci masu firiji wurin sifirin tumatir. Idan bai samu ba, a rufe mota mara firiji da tempol dan kariya daka bushewa.
  • Za’a iya daukan tumatir a kiret na katako ko na roba, ko kwali, a cikin mota. Sifirin tumatir a kiret na roba na rage asara ko a titi mara kyau ne ayayin da cika kwanduna akan titi mara kyau na janyo tumatir suna faduwa su cenja kamani ayayin sifiri, ya rake yawan wanda za’a siyar.
  • Motocin sifiri su zaba suna da tsafta ana kula dasu sosai. Kada a samu ruwa na diga ko a kwance, kasa, wari ko karikice.
  • Abubuwan hawa da ake sifirin dabobi da sinadirai bai kamata ayi sifirin sababin amfanin gona ba.
  • A duba abun hawan da za’ai sifirin tumatir dasu a tabbatar babu kwari.
  • A wanke motoci da za’ai sifirin tumatir da ruwa mai zafin 60-71 digiri maaunin selshious, a kuma tsaftace da sinadiri.
  • Ka zuba tumatir ya samu iska tsakanin robobin dauka.
  • A ilmantar da duka masu aiki akan yadda za’a kunshe, sarafa da kuma sifirin tumatir.

Busarwa

Busarwa wata hanyar sarafa tumatir ce. Idan manoma sukai girbi mai yawa, zasu iya shanya tumtir ya bushe domin adanawa da kuma rage asara bayan girbi. Tumatir mafi kyau wurin busarwa sune wadanda sukai bul-bul da kuma karfin su, a misali, Roma da UC82B. Za’a iya busar da tumatir a rana a budaden wuri mai iska ko kuma a busar dashi ta wasu dabarun inji. Kafin ka busar da tumatir, ka tsoma shi a ruwan zafi na minti 1-2 dan cire cututuka.

  • Busarwa a budaden wuri mai iska: A wanke tumatir, a raba shi gida biyu ko hudu, sai a daura akan shafafen mazubi mai tsafta, inda aka yanka yana kalon rana. A daura tumatir a farantai da aka rufe da leda asa akan abu mai tudu. A rufe shi da gidan soro ko kuma auduga dan kariya daka lalacewa a sakamakon kwari, dati ko kura. Busarwa a rana na dauka kwanki 2-5 idan ana iska sosai kuma iskar ba danshi. Sakamakon shine tumatir da yayi baki, ja da kuma kaushi wanda yake da kaso 15-20% na danshi. Idan aka cigaba da busarwa, danshin sa zai ragu zuwa kaso 5% cikin dari, sanan bushashen tumatirin da yayi tauri, yana murmushewa za’a iya daka shi zuwa gari ko burbushe ayi amfani dashi wurin miya. Yana da sauki a ajiye tumatir a matsayin gari ko burbushi.
  • Busarwa ta inji: A busarwa ta inji, injinan busarwa masu amfani da hasken rana ko kuma injina da ke amfani da fetur ake amfani dasu wurin busar da tumatir. Ka tabatatar ka saita zafin inji kar ya wuce digiri 65 na maunin Celsius, idan zafi yayi yawa, zai iya cenjawa bushashan tumatir din dandano.

Sarrafawa

Sarrafawa da kuma kunshe tumatir na rage asara bayan girbi kuma yana bada amfanin gona da zai dade ya kai har shekara daya ba tare da ya lalace ba. A gidaje, jajjagagen tumatir ana sarafa shi ayi lemun tumatir, miya, kirim ko kuma niqaqen tumatir.

Yadda akeyin jajjagagen tumatir

  • Ka yi amfani da tumatir da ya nuna kadai wurin yin jajjage.
  • Wanke tumatur ka tsoma shi a ruwa na minti biyu dan ya kashe kananen cututuka da suke fata.
  • Ka jajjaga tumatur da turmi da tabarya.
  • Ka cire fata da yayan cikin tumatir da rariya mai kaushi da ramunta bai wuce girman 4mm ba, sai kuma kayi amfani da rariya da ramunta bai wuce milimita daya ba dan yayi sumul.
  • A zuba shi a cikin kwalba mai tsafta da aka wanke. Za’a iya kara man gyada dan kara kyan gani.
  • Ka Dumama* jajjagen a tukunya karfe ko tasa, kana cigaba da jujuyawa. Ka cigaba da jujuyawa dan kashe mitsatsen haluttu da sinadiran dake gina jiki. Bacin duka tumatirin an hada an dafa, a kyale ya huce na minti biyar.
  • Ka jera sarfafen tumatirin a a cikin kwali. Zai iya yin shekara 1-2 akan kanta bai lalace ba.

Jajagagen Tumatir

Zaka iya yin lemun tumatir ta karawa jajjagagen tumatir gishiri da leman tsami. Niqaqen tumatir da tumatirin gwangwani ana yinsu ne ta dafa jajjagagen tumatir har sai ruwan ya fita, anayi ana jujuyawa kar ya kone. Niqaqen tumatirin yana yin launin ja mai duhu, kuma zaa iya sa gishiri dan ya bada dandano. Zaka zuba jajagagen tumatir din acikin mazubi na roba ka rufe shi da murfi da sayarwa ko ajiya.

Domin Karin bayanin, duba mukala 2, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, da 20.

Farashi dan kasuwa

Kafin a shuka tumatir, manomaya kamata su sani:

  • Su kididge duka kudin da suka kasha wurin shuka tumatir dan sus a farashi da yadace suci riba
  • Kayi bincike akan nema da siyarwa na wanan kaka.
  • Ka lura da kasuwani kafin ka shuka tumatir ko lokacin da suke girma ta hanyar tuntubar masu dauka ko ziyartar kasuwani.
  • Ka tabbatar da kasuwani tumatir da bukatar masu siyan tumatir, ko a kasuwani gida a ke siyarwar, ko fita dasu ake waje, ko kuma kampany ake kaiwa.
  • Ka shuka irin da masu siya suke so, sanan kuyi yarjejeniya da masu siye dan ka tabbatar da ka siyar da kayamka.

Siyarwa

  • Manoma da suka hadu suka siyar da kayansu ta hanyar kungiya hadin kai ko hadakaina, sunfi samun damar siyar da kayansu da tsada su samu kudi akan wadanda suke siyarwa dai-dai da dai-dai.
  • Hadakar kai na baiwa manoma dama su sayar da tumatirin su da yawa a lokaci guda ga masu sari.
  • Sayar da tumatir a kungiyance ta na baiwa manoma dama su raraba kuma su shirya yanda zaai sifirin sa zuwa kasuwa a nutse.
  • A kasar Eritrea, manoman da sukai shuka ba’a lokacin kaka ba, lokacin rani da hazo, sunfi sayar da kayansu da tsada saboda karancin tumatir a kasuwa a lokutan. A kasar Nigeria, lokutan damuna ne tumatir yake wahala dan haka manoma suke saida kayan su da tsada.
  • Manoma da suke sifirin tumatirin zuwa kasuwa sunfi cin riba akan wanda suke siyarwa a kofar gonan su.

Siyarwa yan tsakiya

Amfanin su

  • Yan tsakiya na da amfani ga manoman masu sayar da kaya masu saurin lalacewa tunda suna taimaka musu su siyi kayan su sukai musu kasuwa.
  • Yan tsakiya ko dilalai na hada manoma da masu siye da siyarwa su kuma yi yarjejeniya kudin siyarwa, a basu dan kwamasho bayan an siyar.
  • Yan tsakiya suna tsayawa a masu siye bayan girbi.
  • Yan tsakiya na taimakawa manoma rage asara bayan girba ta hanyar samar da abun dauka kamar kiret din roba.

Rashin Amfanin su

  • Yan tsakiya zasu iya hada baki sus ai kayan manomi da arha a gona a wurin manoman da basu san farashi ba.
  • Yan tsakiya zasu iya hada baki da masu siye su rikida farashi sus a manoma su samu riba kadan.
  • Yan tsakiya na siyan tumatir da arha a kofar gona, dan manoma sun matsu si siyar da kayansu kar su lalace, saboda haka sai su karbi duk nawa aka basu.
  • Yan tsakiya suna tambayar kwamasho mai yawa da zai iya shiga ribar manoma.

Ajiya rekod

  • Ajiye rubutacen bayanai akan nawa aka kasha yana taimakawa manomi ya san nawa kduin shuka tumatir dan yasan nawa zai a farashi idan ya tashi siyarwa domin yaci riba.
  • Ajiye bayanai na taimakawa manomi yasan yaci riba ko kuwa yayi asara.
  • Bayanai na taimakawa manomi yasan nawa ya samu a noman tumatir.
  • Rubutacen bayanai na taimakawa manoma su dau hukunci wurin akan lokacin da ya dace suyi shuka da kuma inda zasu siya ko siyar dasu.
  • Ajiye bayanai na taimakawa manoma su bi didigin nawa suka sa a noman su nawa kuma suka kasha.

Bin didigin farashi a kasuwa

  • Manoma suna kula da farashin tumatir duk sati dan su gane yadda abun yake gudana a gaba daya shekara sai su san ya zasuyi noman da nawazasu samu.
  • Manoma su ziyarci kasuwani daban-daban ko suyi waya kafin suyi girbi dan su san nawa farashin yake a wanan lokacin.
  • Manoma na iya daukar tumatirin su sukai wurin hadakar-kai dan su siyar a tare. Siyar a tare na bawa manoma karfi da dama zabar farashi.
  • Manoma na iya amfani da hanyoyi talla na waya talho su sayar da tumatir. Wanan wani Karin dama ce na talan hajja, yana kuma kara wa manomi sanin farashin kasuwa.

Domin Karin bayanin, duba mukala 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 15, da 20.

Fassara

Dumame: Wanan wata hanya ce da ake tsaftace kayan gona, yawancin ta hanyar zafi, dan a kara masa tsawon rai da kuma lafiya.

Bushewa: Bushewa anan ana nufin tsarin da ruwa yake bi daka tushen bishiya zuwa ganye inda yake zama tururi ya bi iska. A takaice dai ya na nufin tashin ruwa daka ganyayaki zuwa sararin samaniya.

A ina zan samu wadansu bayanai akan wanan maudu’in?

Mukala

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  2. Arah, I. K. et al, 2015. An Overview of Post-Harvest Losses in Tomato Production in Africa: Causes and Possible Prevention Strategies. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, Vol. 5, No. 16, pages 78-88. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.862.3331&rep=rep1&type=pdf (2.42 MB).
  3. Asgedom, S., et al, 2010. Opportunities and constraints of tomato production in Eritrea. African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 6(4), pages 956-967. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/29236529.pdf (130 KB)
  4. Azam, M., et al, 2017. Impact of climate change vulnerabilities on horticultural production. Horticulture International Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, pages 45-47. https://medcraveonline.com/HIJ/HIJ-01-00008.pdf (428 KB).
  5. Department of Agriculture, South Africa, undated. Classes and grading requirements of tomatoes. http://webapps.daff.gov.za/AmisAdmin/upload/classes%20and%20grading%20requirements%20of%20tomatoes.pdf (232 KB)
  6. Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (South Africa), undated. Production guidelines for Tomato. https://www.nda.agric.za/docs/Brochures/ProdGuideTomato.pdf (996 KB)
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Acknowledgements

Yabo

Gudunmuwa daka: James Karuga, Dan Jarida noma, a kasar Kenya

Bitar aikin daka: Oloruntoyin Olorunfemi, Adedotun Adedoyin, and Hamisu Abdulrasheed Ibrahim, Technoserve Nigeria.

Wanan binciken, an samar dashi ne daka tallafin Gidauniyar Rockefeller ta shirin su na Yieldwise initiative