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Script 97.2

Notes to broadcasters

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A friend in need is a friend indeed is a four-part drama that includes a fictional interview with an agricultural scientist after each episode. The drama and the interviews focus on farming practices that reduce aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts. The drama and the interviews focus on the situation in Malawi, but can easily be adapted to other African countries that grow groundnuts.

Aflatoxin is a toxic substance that is produced by microscopic creatures called fungi (named “germs” in the drama). The fungi infect groundnuts, as well as maize and other crops, and cause the foods to rot. As part of the infection process, the fungi produce a substance called aflatoxin.

Aflatoxin is a serious threat to human health as it can cause cancer and stunt children’s growth. It can also have serious economic effects. For example, Malawi had a thriving export trade in groundnuts until that market was lost because of the high levels of aflatoxin contamination.

Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut is a serious problem because groundnut forms a major part of the diets of poor rural people as a more affordable source of protein than the more expensive animal products.

This four-part drama highlights the steps farmers can take to prevent aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts. The first part concentrates on finding aflatoxin-free nuts for planting. Later episodes focus on ways to prevent aflatoxin contamination in the field and during harvest, storage, and marketing.

The conversations with the scientist are based on actual interviews with an agricultural scientist who works with groundnuts. You could use this drama as an inspiration to produce a similar program on groundnuts, on aflatoxin, or on groundnut diseases in your area.

Or, you might choose to present this drama as part of your regular farmer program, using voice actors to represent the speakers. You could present one episode every week for four weeks. After the program, you could follow up with by inviting a local groundnut extension agent or scientist to take phone-in and text-in questions and comments from local farmers on the material in the drama.

Estimated running time for episode 1: 30 minutes with beginning and end music.

Script

Part 1: Charity begins at home.

Estimated running time for episode 1: 30 minutes with beginning and end music.

CHARACTERS

CHIBWE:
Ambitious, drunkard and hard-working

NAMILAZI:
Wife of Mr. Chibwe and sister of Mr. Gama. Intelligent, she is a standard 8 dropout because her parents could not afford to pay secondary school for two children. She stayed in her village; Chibwe married her and came to live with her.

GAMA:
Industrious young groundnut farmer, Namilazi’s brother and hence Chibwe’s brother in-law

TEMBO:
Agriculture extension officer at NGO which is promoting production of groundnuts and other legumes in the area
SECRETARY:
Works at Mr. Tembo’s NGO

SIGNATURE TUNE UP, THEN FADE DOWN AND HOLD UNDER BELOW

PRESENTER:
Welcome to the first episode of a four-part drama series, entitled A friend in need is a friend indeed, or Wakutsina khutu ndi mnasi in the Chichewa language. I am your presenter, ____, and I will be bringing you an episode of this drama every ____afternoon for the next four weeks on (name of radio station.). After the drama, which includes a fictional discussion with a groundnut scientist, we will open our phone and SMS lines to talk about aflatoxin in groundnuts. Our numbers for phone calls are ____, and our SMS lines are ___.

SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND CROSS-FADE INTO BELOW

NARRATOR:
Did you know that when we eat groundnuts which are rotten or even partly rotten, we are consuming dangerous poisons called aflatoxins, and that these aflatoxins when accumulated over a prolonged period of time can cause liver cancer in adults and stunted growth in children? Did you know that aflatoxin accumulates in groundnuts, and that it can be present without the usual powder or black stuff – known as chuku in Chichewa – that shows us that our groundnuts are rotten?

FX:
SIG TUNE (INSTRUMENTATION ONLY) UP AND HOLD LOW UNDER BELOW

NARRATOR:
Today, we present the first episode of a four-part drama series that shows what farmers can do to prevent groundnuts from being contaminated by aflatoxin. Episode one focuses on getting good seed and preventing rotting of any sort before planting.

Later on in the program, I’ll have an interview with Dr. Jasoni, a groundnut scientist. Enjoy the drama.

SIGNATURE TUNE OUT AND CROSS-FADE INTO BELOW

SCENE 1

FX:
Chibwe sings drunkenly. He carelessly leans a bicycle against his house. The sound of the bicycle falling over can be heard under Chibwe’s voice below.

FX:
AMBIENT SOUNDS (GOATS, CHICKENS)

CHIBWE:
(CALLING) Namilazi! Namilazi! My wife …

NAMILAZI:
Yes, my husband, Mr. Chibwe.

CHIBWE:
Ok … you are back, my wife. That is why I love you … you are always on time.

NAMILAZI:
(PROUDLY LAUGHS) Ok, if you say so.

CHIBWE:
Who brought this beautiful blue plastic pail?

NAMILAZI:
It was me, my husband.

CHIBWE:
Who owns it?

NAMILAZI:
It’s ours now. I have been dying for this … my friends have similar ones, but mine is the latest one.

CHIBWE:
I am happy for you, my darling. How much did you sell those 50-kilo bags of unshelled groundnuts for?

NAMILAZI:
I sold them for 6000 kwacha per bag. (
Editor’s note:
1000 kwacha is about $3 US) Look at this money!

CHIBWE:
No, you are joking! (LAUGHS) I thought you took only two bags of unshelled groundnuts? All this money … how much is here?

NAMILAZI:
Ten thousand kwacha. I bought the pail for 1500 kwacha and gave our son James 500 kwacha just to thank him for helping me carry the groundnuts to market.

CHIBWE:
Ok…. So where is James?

NAMILAZI:
He stayed there; he wants to fix his mobile phone with the money I gave him.

CHIBWE:
All this money! Hey, groundnuts are money these days! If you had shelled those groundnuts, would they have filled the 50-kilo bag?

NAMILAZI:
Yes! In fact, I am regretting selling them unshelled. There is a company which is buying shelled, well-graded nuts at 400 kwacha per kilo.

CHIBWE:
What?! That would be 20,000 kwacha per bag … You have lost money! Why, Namilazi?

NAMILAZI:
That’s why I am regretting. Anyway, after careful investigation at the better market, I realized it was not that simple…. They were talking about issues like chuku and moisture content.

CHIBWE:
(INTERRUPTING) Aflatoxin? So you were afraid of your nuts being rotten? I thought we graded out the groundnuts which were rotten and made sure that we took only the groundnuts that do not have aflatoxin to market?

NAMILAZI:
It is not that simple. They are testing with instruments to see the aflatoxin levels before buying. They say that you can’t see aflatoxin with naked eyes. What we see is the germs that rot the groundnuts. Some groundnuts are half-rotten without any of the black stuff we can see…. These half-rotten groundnuts are the ones they are refusing to buy because they are very dangerous to our bodies.

CHIBWE:
Hey … They are going as far as testing the nuts with their instruments?

NAMILAZI:
Yes. They said aflatoxin levels accumulate slowly … the nuts which we can’t tell are rotten with our naked eyes are very dangerous. It all depends on how we took care of our seeds, and our groundnuts in the field, when harvesting and drying and storing.

CHIBWE:
Okay. But I want to grow groundnuts even if there are issues with aflatoxin. There is money in groundnuts, my wife! I will just learn and prevent aflatoxin contamination at all stages.

NAMILAZI:
That sounds good. They said that even the nuts that we eat need to be safe, because aflatoxin can cause liver cancer and stunted growth in children.

CHIBWE:
Really?You have learnt a lot…. You sound like a scientist!

FX:
THEY BOTH LAUGH

CHIBWE:
(SOFTLY) So, darling … give me the money!

NAMILAZI:
What? We agreed that the groundnuts are mine and under my control. Why should I give you the money?

CHIBWE:
Groundnuts have become a crop for men now. Can’t you see that the money is just too much for you?

NAMILAZI:
Who says so? I have my own needs too and I don’t want to beg you for everything!

CHIBWE:
Soooo … you mean your groundnuts are under your control and you will eat them alone?

NAMILAZI:
You willhelp me eat them; don’t worry. Will you drink some water from the pail?

CHIBWE:
I will drink.

FX:
SOUND OF POURING WATER INTO ANOTHER BUCKET

NAMILAZI:
So why do you think you will not enjoy the money I earn from my groundnuts? I will put it to good use, not drinking beer! Have you stopped honouring your promises?

CHIBWE:
You know I always do, my wife … but …

NAMILAZI:
(ANGRY AND LOUD) But what? We agreed that groundnuts are mine and for my needs. A women’s crop! Why do you want to change today? If you want money for beer, here is 500 kwacha. I believe that is enough for today’s beer.

CHIBWE:
Thank you; this will be for tomorrow. I’m not going back to drink today. I need to plan how I will do my groundnut farming this year.

NAMILAZI:
I have been telling you that groundnuts will give us enough money for our children’s school fees. Tobacco can help us buy bigger things like iron sheets for a better house, and in the future we can buy cars and oxcarts. Imagine how much my brother Gama will make this year. He knows about aflatoxin already, mind you!

CHIBWE:
(NOT LISTENING, PREOCCUPIED WITH CALCULATING) You were right, my wife…. If your 10 unshelled bags were shelled and aflatoxin-free, you could have got at least 100,000 kwacha from the five or six shelled bags that would come from them. That means Gama will be a millionaire this year with his hundred-plus bags of unshelled groundnuts.

NAMILAZI:
You see! He will buy what he needs for his wedding, and maybe even build a house with iron sheets.

CHIBWE:
Hey, I am going to start growing groundnuts immediately.

NAMILAZI:
Isn’t it too late to start?

CHIBWE:
Mmm … I wonder where I will find seed. How many bags of seed do we have?

NAMILAZI:
I kept one unshelled bag only for seed; the rest is for food in this house.

CHIBWE:
Are all those seven remaining bags for food, my wife? Let’s not eat the groundnuts – let’s keep them for seed.

NAMILAZI:
No way! If you want to be a serious groundnut farmer, you must buy your own seed.

CHIBWE:
Ok ok. No more arguments. I will buy. I have money from my tobacco sales, remember. I do not care anymore about your nuts.

NAMILAZI:
I cannot stop adding groundnuts to our porridge and vegetables. I don’t want us become malnourished just because you want to start growing groundnuts.

CHIBWE:
(ANGRY NOW)I did not mean that. The issue is closed and agreed – you win…. Let me go and buy seed from my in-law, Gama.

NAMILAZI:
(OFF-MIC) That is better. I was worried that you wanted to succeed at my expense! We agreed already that one bag is enough seed for my small plot. And the rest of the groundnuts are for food.

CHIBWE:
(TIRED OF TALKING AND FULLY SOBER)Eeh, Namilazi … You are like a radio that I have turned on, and now you won’t stop talking! I said I am going to buy seed, didn’t I?

SCENE TRANSITION

NARRATOR:
Chibwe regrets that he did not support his wife to grow groundnuts and missed making money from the high prices. He has vowed to join a farmers’ group and grow groundnuts to make money. But where will he find good seed?

TRANSITIONAL MUSIC UP AND CROSS-FADE INTO BELOW

SCENE 2

FX:
KNOCKING AT DOOR

CHIBWE:
(CALLING)Gama! My in-law! Where are you?

GAMA:
(OFF-MIC SOUND OF CONTAINER AND WATER SPLASHING FROM THE CONTAINER, THEN SHOUTING) Mr. Chibwe, my in-law … (PAUSE, THEN ON-MIC) Let’s go inside … I was taking a bath.

FX:
DOOR OPENING AND CLOSING

GAMA:
Sit on that chair, Mr. Chibwe. I am coming. Just let me change clothes.

CHIBWE:
(ON-MIC, LOUD) I won’t take much of your time. I know you want to visit your girlfriend.

GAMA:
(OFF-MIC IN HIS BEDROOM) Yes … I want to get you a sister. Remember, I am marrying this year.

CHIBWE:
I just want to know if it is possible for you to sell me some bags of groundnuts.

GAMA:
(ON-MIC NOW) Yes I can, my in–law. How many bags do you want?

CHIBWE:
What is the price per bag?

GAMA:
I think you know that one company is buying at 20,000 kwacha for a shelled and graded 50-kilo bag. And vendors are buying unshelled groundnuts at 6000 kwacha per 50-kilo bag. But I can give you a bag of unshelled groundnuts at 5000 kwacha because you are my brother in-law and you are like my parent.

CHIBWE:
Thank you for your kindness, Gama.

GAMA:
But what has gone wrong with you? I thought my sister planted and harvested enough groundnuts for food.

CHIBWE:
I want to grow groundnuts for sale this season. I want enough seed for two acres. I didn’t know that growing groundnuts was such easy money! How many bags of seed do I need to plant two acres of land?

GAMA:
Oh, you need seed. I don’t have any.… Anyway, groundnut farming is not easy money. It’s tough work, which I think you know. Groundnuts are labour-intensive, like tobacco.

CHIBWE:
Let’s leave the labour issue aside – you know I farm like a tractor. Why do you say that your groundnuts are not for seed? What do you mean? Is there any difference?

GAMA:
Yes, there is a difference. I have recycled my groundnuts for a long time now. I need to buy new and clean, good quality seed for the next season.

CHIBWE:
Clean, good quality seed? What do you mean?

GAMA:
We need clean good quality seed in order to produce high yields and good quality groundnuts. Planting good quality seed is also one of the ways to prevent aflatoxin contamination.

CHIBWE:
No, you are lying. I have known aflatoxin since my childhood, and there’s nothing special about aflatoxin or rotting.

GAMA:
Sure, you have known about it … but you need to know that scientists have discovered that half-rotten groundnuts contain aflatoxin that we cannot see with our naked eyes. And they’re very dangerous for people and animals to eat.

CHIBWE:
That is what your sister was telling me. But what does rotting or aflatoxin have to do with recycled seed?

GAMA:
When you use recycled seed, first the yield decreases as time goes by. Planting three times is enough. And if the seed is not treated before planting, the fungi or germs that cause rotting in the groundnuts quickly accumulate. If you are not careful while you are growing groundnuts, the risk of the groundnuts rotting and poison accumulating gets bigger and bigger.

CHIBWE:
Are you serious?

GAMA:
Yes! Very serious. That is why we need clean, good, treated seed from reputable local seed producers. Once in every three growing seasons at least. (PAUSE) Can I go now? You are delaying me. We can talk tomorrow … I will join you in searching for good seed.

FX:
OPENING AND CLOSING OF DOOR AND LOCKING WITH PADLOCK

GAMA:
You see, Mr. Chibwe, if you plant poor quality seeds, many groundnuts will rot in your garden. Then you will miss the good market. And worse still, you can’t even eat those nuts. They’re dangerous to your bodies and your children. They cause liver cancer. And stunted growth in young children.

CHIBWE:
God forbid … aflatoxin is so dangerous.

GAMA:
See you tomorrow. We will go together to my friends who sell seed.

CHIBWE:
You didn’t join the seed multiplying group this year?

GAMA:
(OFF-MIC) No. I was writing my form four exam.

CHIBWE:
(CALLING AS HE GOES) See you tomorrow. Take care and greet my sister for me.

CHIBWE:
(TO HIMSELF, FRUSTRATED AND NERVOUS) Shaaa … so groundnuts are becoming a crop that we will need to buy seed for every year.

SCENE TRANSITION

SCENE 3

FX:
PEOPLE BUYING AND SELLING THINGS AT MARKETPLACE, OTHERS WAITING FOR MINI-BUSES

CHIBWE:
Gama, my in-law, I am tired, hungry and thirsty. I took neither food nor alcohol today and it is almost 11 in the morning.

GAMA:
I know, Chibwe, my in-law. Why not buy some food to replenish your energy?

CHIBWE:
Not now. You know that when I make a decision, I stick to it. That is why, even though I drink beer, your sister is not among the poor.

GAMA:
Imagine how rich she would be if you didn’t drink all the time!

CHIBWE:
(DISMISSIVE) That is another issue … Gama, look how good these nuts are. Let’s buy them. Everyone else we visited has already sold all their groundnuts.

GAMA:
My in-law… We do not buy chickens to raise from the marketplace (nkhuku yoweta sagula pa nsika)! (
Editor’s note:
Many chickens sold at marketplaces are infected with diseases such as Newcastle disease, so it’s not a good idea to raise chickens that you buy from the marketplace.) Have you forgotten what I told you yesterday? Aflatoxin accumulates when you recycle seed! Aflatoxin contamination can also be prevented by avoiding use of recycled seed. Do you know how many times they have planted those nuts you see at the market?

CHIBWE:
Sorry, I forgot.

GAMA:
Anyway, it’s not about aflatoxin only. Recycled seed also gives low yields.

CHIBWE:
Then let’s go home and start again from scratch to think of other sources.

GAMA:
I already have an alternative. That is why we are at this trading centre.

CHIBWE:
Where are we going?

GAMA:
I want to check with the non-governmental organizations which have been helping me with the seed multiplication project. (
Editor’s note:
Insert the name of NGOs that sells groundnut seeds locally.)

CHIBWE:
Oh, them … Yeah, I saw their offices behind the market near that big shop. Why didn’t you tell me?

GAMA:
I am telling you now. That is where we are going.

CHIBWE:
Okay. You are indeed intelligent, my in-law. I don’t know why you are rushing to marry. Who knows? You might qualify for university.

FX:
KNOCKING ON DOOR

SECRETARY:
Come in.

FX:
DOOR OPENING AND CELL PHONE RINGING

GAMA:
My in-law Chibwe, come join me, come in.

SECRETARY:
Hello! Hello! (TO HERSELF) Maybe it was just flashing or had run out of units…. Have a seat, Mr. Gama. Are you looking for Mr. Tembo? Let me see if he is free. He was preparing to leave the office …

GAMA:
Thank you, madam secretary.

FX:
DOOR OPENING, PAUSE, AND DOOR CLOSING

SECRETARY:
Gama, you have been missing in action. Were you out of your village? It was last year we met, wasn’t it?

GAMA:
Yes, it was last year. I was around but I was just busy with exams. You know I sat for the Malawi School Certificate Exams.

SECRETARY:
How was it?

GAMA
: As usual … I can say medium, not too hard and not easy.

SECRETARY
: You can enter. Mr. Tembo will give you just a few minutes, because he is late for a meeting.

GAMA:
Thank you.

SECRETARY:
It’s good to farm while you’re waiting for your exam results. You will be an educated young farmer now.

BOTH:
LAUGH

FX:
DOOR OPENING AND CLOSING

TEMBO:
Oh, young man … Gama … Okay, you are with your in-law, Mr. Chibwe. How are you, Mr. Chibwe and Gama?

BOTH:
Fine and you, Mr. Tembo?

TEMBO:
As you have heard, I have a meeting beyond your village in an hour’s time. How can I help you gentlemen?

CHIBWE:
I would like to join a groundnuts farmers’ club.

TEMBO:
There are so many farmers who have already joined the club. Why do you want to join? Can you manage tobacco and groundnuts? Both are labour-intensive crops.

CHIBWE:
(DISMISSIVE) What are groundnuts? You know, I grow tobacco, but I want to reduce the amount of tobacco which I grow. With these anti-smoking lobbies and the quota system which the government has re-introduced, I have no choice but to diversify. (
Editor’s note:
The Malawian government has introduced a quota system that determines how much tobacco individual farmers can grow.)

TEMBO:
It sounds good. You know the demand is very high for training in groundnut farming. Many people registered. Let’s see if we have any space remaining … I remember that the list from your village was full already… if that is true, then we first sell seed to our members and then the remaining seed to anyone else. Just a moment please … I need to see the secretary.

FX:
DOOR OPENING

NARRATOR:
They sayit never rains it pours (amati ikakuona litsiro sikata).Will Mr.Chibweget a chance to join the groundnut farming group?

Listeners, have you already found seed for this season? Have you registered for the type of farming you want to do?Remember:If you want to sleep in the middle, you have to go to bed early.

(Editor’s note:
This is a proverb in Malawi which means that, because it’s safer during war or when in the bush to sleep between other bodies, those who go to bed earlier have a better chance of sleeping in the middle.)

Let’s listen and see what happens. Will Mr. Gama and Mr. Chibwe find space to join the groundnuts club?

FX:
DOOR OPENS AND CLOSES

TEMBO:
Yes, the list is here. Let’s see … hmmmh … Mr. Gama, you are already registered here. Your chairman registered you and the secretary put your name on the beneficiaries list.

GAMA:
What about my in-law?

TEMBO:
No … No chance. We can only put your name on a waiting list. You are the first person on the waiting list for your village.

CHIBWE:
(PLEADING) Please sir, try to squeeze me in.

TEMBO:
You know it’s first come first serve, so you will have to wait for next year. If anyone drops out before trainings and planting, then you will be considered.

CHIBWE:
Sir, please, is there any way?

TEMBO:
We can handle only 25 members per group. We have added a second club in your village this year – and that one too is full. So you will be allowed to buy seed only when all the members have their seed. After all, your friend registered last growing season when crops were still in the field.

FX:
KNOCKING ON DOOR. DOOR OPENS.

SECRETARY:
(OFF-MIC) Sir, a woman brought this letter just now.

TEMBO:
Okay, give it to me. What did she say the letter is about?

SECRETARY:
It’s a withdrawal of membership. Mrs. Biti Njanje.

GAMA:
She is from our village; I know her!

SECRETARY:
She says she is from Watch village. She came to de-register; she said she is following her husband to another village.

CHIBWE:
Yes! Yes! So I can register – she is from my village!

TEMBO:
You are lucky, Mr. Chibwe. You can join.

CHIBWE:
I am glad I’ve stopped being unlucky!

FX:
THEY ALL LAUGH

TEMBO:
So which variety do you want to grow? We are promoting CG7, a red-coated one that is high-yielding.

GAMA AND

CHIBWE:
CG7.

TEMBO:
Go and pay at the cashier’s office. Do it fast because I have a meeting at a village beyond your village. I can take you and your groundnuts if you do not have other things to do at the trading centre …

GAMA:
(INTERRUPTING) We do not have anything left to do at the trading centre, sir.

SCENE TRANSITION

SCENE 4

FX:
SOUND OF CAR CHANGING GEARS. HOLD SOUND OF CAR UNDER BELOW.

TEMBO:
Mr. Chibwe, are you serious that you will start with three acres of groundnuts?

CHIBWE:
Yes, sir.

TEMBO:
Ok. Please make sure that both you and your wife attend our trainings. If your children are free, they can join too.

CHIBWE:
I do not do things just on a trial basis. I always do things with my all might. If I fail, I fail completely. And if I succeed, it should be total success!

FX:
THEY LAUGH

CHIBWE:
By the way, why are these groundnuts still in the pods? Is it because they are for seed?

TEMBO:
You will learn much during the trainings. But since you have already received your groundnuts, I will explain briefly why these nuts are still in their pods.

CHIBWE:
Even though it was long before aflatoxin was an issue, our parents’ tradition was to keep the seeds in their pods. Were they right?

TEMBO:
Yes, that tradition is good. Gama, remind your in-law when he forgets, since you already know so much.

GAMA:
Okay, sir.

TEMBO:
Chibwe, because of aflatoxin, we advise people to continue the tradition of keeping seeds in their pods.

GAMA:
Another important thingis to use good quality seeds of improved varieties which are high-yielding and resistant to diseases, which is also crucial in preventing aflatoxin contamination.

TEMBO:
Yes. The seeds we are giving you have been certified and treated by the research team; hence they are free from fungi that produce aflatoxin. All that you need is to take care of them.

CHIBWE:
Okay. What do you mean by taking care of them? Can the nuts rot in their pods?

TEMBO:
Yes they do rot, man. Caring for them means reducing contamination in seed storage. They rot if you store them in humid places even though they are in the pods.

GAMA:
My understanding is that the pods keep the nuts at the right temperature and minimum moisture level if they are fully dried. Am I wrong?

TEMBO:
No, you are right. Do you remember how our parents used to keep most of the seeds?

CHIBWE:
How could I forget? The pods were hung right on top of the fireplace in the kitchen, like maize cobs.

TEMBO:
That was the best way to store groundnuts – and even other crops. You know the groundnuts need to be in a dry place, and not humid.

CHIBWE:
So you mean if groundnuts are always hung in the kitchen where the smoke is, they will be safe?

TEMBO:
Yes. Safe from weevils and sometimes even from rats, and safe from germs.

CHIBWE:
So should I store my seeds in the kitchen? Can I fit all the bags of seeds for three acres in a kitchen?

GAMA:
If your kitchen is big, you can make a rack on one side. Just make sure it doesn’t touch the wall or the floor.

TEMBO:
If the kitchen is small, you can choose one dry room and make a rack where you can hang the seed.

CHIBWE:
Why are you insisting on a dry place?

TEMBO:
The groundnuts must always have minimal moisture in them. When there is too much moisture, the germs more easily attack the groundnuts and make them rot.

CHIBWE:
Do I need to put these groundnuts in the sun again before storing them?

TEMBO:
No, that is not necessary. They are already dry. If they were not dry by now, they would already be rotten. The problem with over-drying groundnuts is that they have a low germination rate. Just make sure that you store the groundnuts in a place that is dry, not humid, and well-aerated. And keep them in their pods until you’re ready to plant when the rains are about to come.

GAMA:
Thank you, that was my plan too.

TEMBO:
Ok, I am just on time for my meeting (SOUND OF CAR STOPPING). I am meeting some people here, so the driver will drop you home…. Go and take care of your seed. I will meet the whole group for the first training on land preparation next week. Take care.

FX:
CAR STARTING

GAMA:
Thank you. See you, Mr. Tembo.

SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND FADE OUT UNDER BELOW

NARRATOR:
Mr. Chibwe and his friends will be back next week.

Today, I am in the studio with Dr. Jasoni, a researcher and scientist who studies groundnut breeding. What can you say about groundnut seeds and aflatoxin briefly, Dr. Jasoni?

SCIENTIST:
Here in Malawi, we have grown up knowing chuku as black or greyish stuff which can be cleaned off groundnuts before the nuts are eaten. Often, we keep some of the groundnuts with this black stuff and mix them with small groundnuts to make nsinjiro (sauce), and we sell only the good groundnuts.

But scientists have made the shocking discovery that this chuku is very unhealthy. As the groundnuts rot, germs create a poisonous substance called aflatoxin that contaminates the groundnuts. This aflatoxin poison attacks our body, especially the liver, and can result in liver cancer. Aflatoxins can also stunt the growth of children under five and weaken the immune system.

NARRATOR:
Something like AIDS?

SCIENTIST:
Yes. But these health effects don’t happen overnight. You may be infected when young and not get sick until you are old. In fact, aflatoxins are so dangerous that we must not feed rotten nuts to our cattle or chickens, or other animals. The poison can enter their milk and meat and come back to contaminate our bodies when we eat these foods.

NARRATOR:
Eee … That’s serious! Are there things we can do to prevent this rotting and accumulation of aflatoxin in groundnuts?

SCIENTIST:
Yes, but it takes work and careful effort, and we need to join hands and work together. We have already heard some things that farmers can do to prevent contamination of seeds. Let’s take that seriously because it’s aflatoxin that stopped groundnuts from Malawi from being exported to outside markets. We want groundnut exports to start again.

NARRATOR:
So Dr. Jasoni, how can farmers actually stop this rotting that causes the poison called aflatoxin?

SCIENTIST:
Prevention must be done at a number of stages in the groundnut value chain. The germs that cause aflatoxin need warmth and moisture. So we must make sure the groundnuts are well cared for and fully dried. The first stage of prevention is selecting and keeping groundnut seeds for planting, and stage two is when the groundnuts are growing in the field. And, of course, we must stop eating rotten nuts in any form …

NARRATOR:
(INTERRUPTING) … Hey, you mean groundnuts can rot while growing in the field?

SCIENTIST:
Yes.

NARRATOR:
How else do groundnuts rot?

SCIENTIST:
There are three main ways: When the groundnuts are kept longer than necessary in the soil, when they are stored in warm places with poor ventilation, and when they are dried too long in a place that is not well-ventilated after harvest.

NARRATOR:
What else can we do prevent these germs that produce aflatoxins from attacking our groundnuts?

SCIENTIST:
Here are five things to remember. One: Use improved varieties and treated seed that gives high yields and is resistant to diseases. This can also help prevent aflatoxin contamination.

Two: Use good quality seed rather than recycled seeds to minimize the possibility of aflatoxin contamination and rotting.

Three: Keep seeds in their pods to minimize germ attack.

Four: Keep stored seeds as dry as possible on a raised rack, not touching the wall or floor

And five: If you want to recycle your seeds, or you have bought seed from the local market or from a friend, treat it with SeedMate or Thiram. These are fungicides that can reduce the risks of infection by fungi.

NARRATOR:
Thank you, Dr. Jasoni.

FX:
SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND UNDER

NARRATOR:
We will be back next week with more from Mr. Chibwe and his friends and more conversations about groundnuts and aflatoxin with Dr. Jasoni. Goodbye until then.

SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND OUT

PRESENTER:
A friend in need is a friend indeed was produced by ___. Thank you for listening. We will now open our phone and SMS lines. With us today is name of expert. He/she can answer your questions about groundnuts and aflatoxin and about good practices to avoid it. Our phone numbers are ___ and our SMS lines are ___.

Part 2: Dodging a blow depends on whether you see the blow coming quickly enough

Messages for this episode:

  1. Well-drained soil is best for planting groundnuts.
  2. Prepare land before the rains come so that the groundnuts are mature enough to tolerate the late droughts that increase the risk of aflatoxin.
  3. The best spacing between rows of groundnuts is 60 to 75 centimetres and10 to 15 centimetres between seeds, depending on the variety.
  4. Good weeding is important. Weeds reduce groundnut yield and increase the risk of infestations by insects such as ants, and attacks by rodents. These pest attacks increase the risk of aflatoxin contamination.
  5. Applying agricultural lime, also called gypsum, to the soil at flowering strengthens groundnut pods and reduces the risk of aflatoxin contamination.

To the broadcaster: The estimated running time for episode 2 is 35-40 minutes with beginning and end music.

CHARACTERS:

CHIBWE

NAMILAZI

TEMBO

GAMA

JAMES:
Only son of Mr. Chibwe and Mrs. Namilazi Chibwe. Very intelligent 14-year-old boy in secondary school form two.

PRESENTER:
This is the second in a series of four drama episodes which I ____, your presenter, am bringing to you every _____ afternoon on (name of station). Episode 2 is called Dodging a blow depends on whether you see the blow quickly enough (Kuzinda chibakera nkulinga utachionera.) We will now begin the drama. After the drama, we will open our phone and SMS lines to talk about aflatoxin in groundnuts. Our numbers for phone calls are ____, and our SMS lines are ___.

SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND CROSS-FADE INTO BELOW

NARRATOR:
I am sure those of you who listened to the first episode of our drama know something about the dangers of eating groundnuts which are partly rotten. You learned that consuming aflatoxin-contaminated groundnut is dangerous and because aflatoxin accumulates in our bodies over time, the result can be liver cancer in adults and stunted growth in children. We are presenting this drama series to show how to prevent aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts. Today’s episode talks about how to minimize aflatoxin by doing good land preparation and weeding your groundnut fields.

TRANSITIONAL MUSIC

SCENE 1

FX:
MR. CHIBWE SINGS DRUNKENLY AT THE TOP OF HIS VOICE THAT HE WILL PLANT MORE GROUNDNUTS THIS YEAR SO HE CAN DRINK MORE NEXT YEAR.

CHIBWE:
(CALLING) Namilazi! Namilazi! Namilazi!

FX:
SOUND OF POTS IN THE KITCHEN

NAMILAZI:
(OFF-MIC) Yes, Chibwe.

CHIBWE:
Why did you take so long before answering?

NAMILAZI:
Did you start calling a long time ago?

CHIBWE:
Yes! I was about to go back to drink more beer.

NAMILAZI:
(CALM) Sorry, I am busy. I could not hear you calling.

CHIBWE:
Where is my food, Namilazi?

NAMILAZI:
I am still cooking. I had no relish, so I have just come from the garden.

CHIBWE:
Didn’t you see the sun overhead? It’s almost two o’clock … Lunch time has passed but you have not yet cooked!

NAMILAZI:
James wanted us to finish clearing the land we were working on, and I did not want to leave him alone. I have not even gone to get water. Luckily, he is drawing water for me.

CHIBWE:
Drawing water? You are slowly turning my son into a woman.

NAMILAZI:
What is womanish about that? Can’t you see that James will be a good and caring man, who is aware of gender issues? Not like you.

CHIBWE:
(LOVINGLY) Anyway, Namilazi, if I were not caring and loving enough, would you be this fat, like a baobab tree?

NAMILAZI:
(WITH LOVE TOO) I know that James got this love and caring from you.

CHIBWE:
Ha! Ha! Ha! Okay, but don’t turn him into a woman.

NAMILAZI:
A person can’t change sex because he is doing jobs that society thinks are for a woman. He is simply supporting his mother.

CHIBWE:
(CHANGING SUBJECT) Bring my food. I want to go back and drink beer. Drinking is not over.

NAMILAZI:
Wait, I’ve almost finished cooking. Why are you drinking instead of making ridges for our groundnuts? Are you really serious about groundnut farming?

CHIBWE:
There’s still time. I will make ridges when the rains are about to start. (A BIT DRAMATICALLY) When I see lightning in the evening and hear thunder – then I will know that the rains are close.

NAMILAZI:
Don’t you remember what Mr. Tembo taught us about aflatoxin and planting groundnuts late?

CHIBWE:
Yes, very, very well…. He said early land preparation enables us to plant with the first soaking rains. And planting with the first rains helps us avoid the aflatoxin problems that come with late drought as the groundnuts are maturing.

NAMILAZI:
Then why are you acting as if you are not really interested in growing groundnuts with low aflatoxin? Do you want our groundnuts to rot and fail to sell?

CHIBWE:
(SOFTLY) Namilazi, remember … there are many other ways of avoiding aflatoxin when you’re preparing your land. Spacing of ridges and groundnuts is also part of the game.

NAMILAZI:
Why talk about spacing the ridges when we haven’t even started them? You know that we have to realign the ridges. And they’re a special type of ridge that needs more time than usual to make – but we have not even started!

CHIBWE:
Namilazi, that is all under control. Just bring the food here. (IRRITATED) Why are you asking about things you already know? Are you a teacher examining me?

NAMILAZI:
Remember, we joined a club … Do you want us to be the laughing stock of everyone, the last couple to plant?

CHIBWE:
Don’t worry. We still have time. We will finish preparing the land on time. Have you forgotten that I farm like a tractor, one acre in only two days? Remember: Big men can leave the door wide open at night and sleep without fear.

NAMILAZI:
(IRRITATED) That must be a joke. In case you have forgotten, my husband, we need to realign the ridges in the garden to 75 centimetres apart. And then we need to make them flat like a table so we can have two rows of groundnuts at 30 centimetres apart. All this takes time!

CHIBWE:
Time indeed, but don’t you worry. If the rains come early as you say, then we will plant the groundnuts where you planted them last year. Those ridges are already at the right spacing.

NAMILAZI:
(RAISES VOICE) Chibwe! Are you drunk? Do not behave like a child! We can’t plant groundnuts where we planted them last year! Have you forgotten that we need to rotate the groundnuts with other crops like maize to reduce diseases?

CHIBWE:
(CHANGING SUBJECT, DEFENSIVE) Just give me food … I am hungry.

SOUND OF A BICYCLE BELL

JAMES:
(COMING ON-MIC) Dad, move away … I want to lean the bicycle there. Help me … help me support the bicycle so that I can take off this big water container.

CHIBWE:
Are you a man, James?

JAMES:
Yes, you know I am a man.

CHIBWE:
Then be strong. Can’t you support the bicycle with your hips and then take off the water container?

JAMES:
Ok, you are saying I should lean it on my hips like this … let me try taking the container off … yes, it’s easy.

FX:
SOUND OF A BIG METAL CONTAINER WITH WATER INSIDE

CHIBWE:
There you go, mam’s good boy.

JAMES:
Look, dad, you are drunk instead of helping mam farming.

CHIBWE:
(SHARPLY) You, boy, just continue drawing water. We have already discussed that issue with your mam.

SCENE 2

FX:
SOUND OF HEAVY RAIN FALLING. SOUND OF MUSIC ON RADIO IN BACKGROUND THROUGHOUT THIS SCENE.

CHIBWE:
(SOBER, DISCOURAGED VOICE) It’s you, Namilazi, who made the rains come this early … you wanted it this early.

NAMILAZI:
Do I control the weather?

JAMES:
You only listen to yourself, dad … we have been telling you to start making the ridges for a long time.

CHIBWE:
(SHARPLY) Hey, you boy, when were you born? Groundnuts do well when you make ridges after the rains have already come.

JAMES:
Dad, honestly, how many days will it take you to finish cultivating three acres?

CHIBWE:
About … three weeks …

JAMES:
Not three days? I thought you said you were a tractor that takes only one or two days for one acre!

CHIBWE:
(DEFENSIVE) Stop these useless arguments! Just take your hoes and join me in the garden to start making ridges.

NAMILAZI:
No way. When we were working, you were drinking. It’s your turn to ridge, my husband! On the other hand by the time we finish ridging, there may be a dry spell. Will it keep raining until our groundnuts are mature? Remember that aflatoxin can attack late in the season when the groundnuts are stressed and almost mature.

JAMES:
And when are we going to finish re-arranging the ridges to 75 centimetres apart?

NAMILAZI:
I am not going to join the ridging group. I will be planting maize where I already made ridges.

CHIBWE:
I am sorry; please forgive me. Help me with the ridging. Please do not go to plant the maize.

JAMES:
That’s your problem. Tell your beer to help you. We did our part.

FX:
SOUND OF RADIO: Please, farmers, we know that you received heavy rains in this month of September, but please do not plant. This rain is not the first real rain. Continue preparing your land.

FX:
RADIO RETURNS TO BACKGROUND MUSIC

NAMILAZI:
Did you hear what the radio said, James? Let’s stop planting.

CHIBWE:
Hey, that is such a relief. Now, please join me in making ridges. I have stopped drinking beer anyhow. I will be drinking after work.

NAMILAZI:
Okay, let’s go. I think you bought some lime. Get the bags and let’s spread lime where we will make the ridges today.

CHIBWE:
Yes, I bought lime because they said it helps the nuts have strong pods. It needs to be spread in the garden at flowering or cut into the ridge, right?

JAMES:
Yes. I will bring those two bags of lime on the bicycle. But tomorrow I will not join you, because school is opening.

NAMILAZI:
We will miss you, my son.

SCENE 3

FX:
SOUND OF BIRDS AND HOES

JAMES:
Ok, mam and dad, let’s review. I want to be sure that you remember what Mr. Tembo taught us. So my first question is: why can’t we plant groundnuts on the same land that we planted groundnuts last year? Mama Namilazi?

NAMILAZI:
They said that the germs which produce aflatoxin and other diseases are already in the soil and will multiply if you do not practice crop rotation.

JAMES:
Yes – two points! It’s you, dad – your question now. Why do we need to re-align ridges to 75 centimetres and not 90 centimetres as they used to be in this garden?

CHIBWE:
(COMPLAINING) James, you have asked me a difficult one … you are biased …

JAMES:
Then the question will cross to mam for two points.

CHIBWE:
No wait! … Let me try.

JAMES:
You have already failed so it crosses to mam.

NAMILAZI:
Give him a chance. But he cannot pass; (CHUCKLING) he sold those lessons for beer.

CHIBWE:
No, I think I remember. They said ridges at 75 centimetres apart are close enough so that if you plant two rows 30 centimetres apart on top of one ridge … (MUTTERS TO HIMSELF) But what was the reason for the rows to be that close …?

JAMES:
Mam, help him.

NAMILAZI:
Mr. Tembo said that the rows should be close enough to shade the soil when the groundnuts are growing. That keeps moisture in the soil. And that reduces the stress on the groundnuts and reduces the risks of aflatoxin.

JAMES:
He also said that if the soil is not waterlogged, we can plant without ridges, but at a distance of 30 centimetres to 45 centimetres from one row to another.

NAMILAZI:
But where we live, we sometimes have heavy rains. Because the groundnuts hate too much water, we should make ridges so that groundnuts are in a raised place.

JAMES:
Two points!

CHIBWE:
(COMPLAINING) You are only remembering to give points to your mam!

JAMES:
Okay, two points for you too … but mam has four points now.

CHIBWE:
Okay, let me add two more points too. He said the most delicate time is when the groundnuts are going toward maturity. That’s when there are many dry spells, and the pods are not yet thick and the germs that cause aflatoxin contamination can easily enter the groundnuts if there isn’t enough moisture.

JAMES:
Two points … Were you deliberately pretending not to know, Dad?

CHIBWE:
(IGNORING JAMES’ QUESTION) So planting close acts like mulching. The leaves provide a covering for the soil and the yield is very high.

JAMES:
And do not forget that, for those who can afford it, lime hardens the pods and prevents the germs or fungi which produce aflatoxin from entering the groundnuts.

So, dad, it sounds like you remember very well all the rules of groundnut farming. But you were busy with beer just to cause problems. Why didn’t you start preparing land earlier?

SCENE 4

NARRATOR:
Chibwe’s family is lucky that the rain which came was chizimalupsa, the rain that comes to warn farmers that the rainy season is near.Listeners, have you finished preparing your land to avoid the mess that almost caught Chibwe?

FX:
SOUND OF BIRDS AND HOES IN HARD SOIL

NAMILAZI:
I am missing James today. Who will make our day short with his jokes and questions? He’s not here because we delayed in starting ridging … he has gone to school.

CHIBWE:
Don’t worry, Namilazi, the boy helped us a lot! He cleared this land and buried the plant residues for next year’s composted manure. I just wish him well at school.

NAMILAZI:
So what do we do with last year’s composted manure from the compost pit? Are we going to take it to the other side of the field where the maize is?

TEMBO:
Namilazi and Chibwe … No, don’t remove it …

NAMILAZI:
(SHOCKED) You frightened me, Mr. Tembo …. I didn’t know that you were coming.

CHIBWE:
You frightened me too.

TEMBO:
(CHUCKLES) Yes, I noticed that you were just concentrating on your farming and chatting.

CHIBWE:
You are welcome … But why are you visiting us in our gardens?

TEMBO:
I am just observing what farmers are doing. And in case you need my advice or you have forgotten something, I am here.

NAMILAZI:
We were just talking about manure – whether to remove our composted manure or not. You said we should not remove it. Why?

TEMBO:
The reason is that, although groundnuts fix nitrogen in the soil, they still need fertile soils. Remember I told you that you can apply fertilizer as well as lime to groundnuts?

CHIBWE:
Yes, I remember… But I managed to buy two bags of agricultural lime, which was cheaper than fertilizer.

TEMBO:
You did? Why did you choose lime and not fertilizer for groundnuts?

CHIBWE:
Because you said our groundnuts need to have hard pods so they can withstand fungal attack which produces aflatoxin when the groundnuts are getting mature. As for fertilizer, our soils are fertile enough. We apply manure every year. After all, groundnuts do not need as much nitrogen as maize.

NAMILAZI:
Yes, I thought you told us that.

TEMBO:
Yes, I did. In fact, I am speechless … You remembered well, and I see how serious your family is in trying to avoid aflatoxin contamination.

NAMILAZI:
Yes, we are. You can see how we are making our ridges. We are making them flattish on top like a table, and 75 centimetres apart so that we can plant two rows 30 centimetres apart. And the groundnuts will be 15 centimetres apart because we are planting CG7.

TEMBO:
Why are you going to plant two rows on one ridge, Chibwe?

CHIBWE:
(UNCERTAIN, A BIT NERVOUS) Okay … Are you giving us a test or are you criticizing us?

TEMBO:
Chibwe, have confidence! You are making 75 centimetre ridges, flat, and planting two rows at 30 centimetres apart on one ridge. Why?

CHIBWE:
We still remember what you told us that groundnuts can be attacked by fungi or germs that cause aflatoxin contamination when growing towards maturity …

NAMILAZI:
… And you said that if we plant two rows, we will need more seed, but plant population per acre will be high … so …

CHIBWE:
So yield will be higher per acre and the leaves will cover the ground fast. So we won’t have to worry about droughts that come as the groundnuts are going toward maturity.

NAMILAZI:
You said that drought encourages aflatoxin contamination because there is not enough moisture in the soil.

CHIBWE:
So the groundnuts cover the ground and act like a mulch for the soil. They prevent germination of weeds and keep moisture in the garden.

TEMBO:
I am amazed with how you have remembered this. What is your trick?

NAMILAZI:
We discuss these things. And do you remember that we came to the training with our son James? He is like our teacher. He quizzes us about aflatoxin any time he wants.

TEMBO:
Hey, I am impressed! But why have you started ridging so late? Are you going to have time to make ridges on the rest of the land?

CHIBWE:
We will manage. We will have two more people joining us tomorrow. We will pay them in kind with maize.

TEMBO:
Okay. You have plenty of maize?

CHIBWE:
Yes. More than enough for my small family of one son and two daughters.

TEMBO:
Where are your daughters? I have not seen them.

CHIBWE:
They are identical twins and they are both at university.

TEMBO:
Hey, that is amazing. You told me you were lucky, and I see that you are lucky indeed! Okay, bye, I am going.

CHIBWE:
Thank you for visiting and encouraging us.

NAMILAZI:
(PAUSE WHILE TEMBO LEAVES, THEN, QUIETLY) Oh, Mr. Chibwe, that is why you were drinking beer. You were just fooling your friends who have no maize because you wanted to employ them in your garden later.

CHIBWE:
If they were drinking with me, it is their fault. I knew what I was doing. And at least I was saved from my biggest embarrassment when we discovered that the rains were just warning rains.

NAMILAZI:
(CALLS) Mr. Tembo … you did not finish about manure. Should we apply composted manure to our groundnuts or not? If we should apply, how?

TEMBO:
(OFF-MIC) Groundnuts need good soils too, not bad soils as other people think. Your soil might look good, Mr. Chibwe, because you apply manure every year.

NAMILAZI:
Yes, we do.

TEMBO:
(OFF-MIC) When applying manure to groundnuts, you simply break the ridge open, make a trench on top of it, and apply the manure. At least a pail every eight to ten metres (
Editor’s note:
Normally, farmers use 20-litre pails). And then bury the manure. Then you are done and you can plant there.

NAMILAZI:
I heard manure keeps moisture in the soil too.

TEMBO:
(OFF-MIC) Yes, it does. It can help prevent aflatoxin contamination too. So if you have no lime or fertilizer, you can apply manure. It works. Or simply plant groundnuts on fertile soils. Bye now.

CHIBWE:
(CALLING) You made us lazy; we would have finished this part by now!

TEMBO:
(OFF-MIC, CHUCKLES) True … go ahead with your farming.

NAMILAZI:
(CALLING) No, he is joking … it was a pleasure having you here. You instilled self-confidence in us. As for Chibwe, he said he will employ two more people tomorrow to help us finish quickly. Without you asking, he would not have revealed that to me.

CHIBWE:
(IN A LOW VOICE) Namilazi … you are embarrassing me. That is between the two of us. Am I doing the wrong thing to add two more people?

NAMILAZI:
No … but you didn’t tell me about it. It was good he came; he made you reveal the secret why you were not coming to work with us.

CHIBWE:
No, Namilazi, I would have told you.

NAMILAZI:
It is good though that you are hiring two people. It will reduce my burden. Otherwise we would not be resting anytime soon! Next time, tell me your plan early so that both of us can enjoy our time!

CHIBWE:
I am happy that you are happy with seeking extra hands. The plan just came to me when Mr. Tembo was here. I was ashamed of my late land preparation.

SCENE 5

FX:
SOUND OF BIRDS AND WEEDING

CHIBWE:
(SURPRISED) Ahh, Gama, why have you started weeding just one week after your groundnuts germinated? Can’t you wait for the weeds to grow first?

GAMA:
My in-law Chibwe, welcome. But why have you come to the garden today?

CHIBWE:
I am here to see how my groundnuts have germinated.

GAMA:
So how have they germinated?

CHIBWE:
Very well. They look very strong.

GAMA:
When you looked carefully, did you see any unwanted plants?

CHIBWE:
Yes, I noticed that some other plants germinated too. There were some maize plants, and some which I could not identify.

GAMA:
We call those plants weeds. They are not wanted in the groundnut garden. That is why I am weeding.

CHIBWE:
Including the maize?

GAMA:
Yes, maize plants are weeds. Did you plant them this year?

CHIBWE:
No, but they are a wanted crop. Don’t we eat maize?

GAMA:
I know that we used to interplant maize with groundnuts, but that was done intentionally. But maize is a weed here because it will affect the groundnuts.

CHIBWE:
Ah, I will leave some of this maize to grow.

GAMA:
You can leave the maize in the fallow area, I guess. When the weeds are this small, even shorter than a finger’s length, they look like they have no effect on the groundnuts.

CHIBWE:
That’s why I am asking why you are weeding this early. The weeds are so small!

GAMA:
I don’t want to wait until the weeds cause problems by competing with my groundnuts. My in-law, please guess how many days it will take me to finish weeding my two acres.

CHIBWE:
Not less than one week, even if you work in the morning and afternoon.

GAMA:
Yes. But if I didn’t start weeding for another week, the field would be a disaster! Weeds grow faster than groundnuts. They will crowd them out. So it’s better to start weeding early than late.

CHIBWE:
Okay! Okay! I get your point. You do not want to have to give labourers money to help you weed when weeds are choking your groundnuts.

GAMA:
Exactly … And my maize garden is waiting for me too, remember. So I need to calculate the timing very well so that no crop suffers.

CHIBWE:
We will start weeding our germinated groundnuts tomorrow. I will be weeding my groundnuts for the next two weeks. After groundnuts, I will spend two weeks weeding my maize. Let’s go home; it’s noon. Food must be ready.

GAMA:
You go …. Remember how you chase people away when they are delaying you … So go. I want to finish weeding this part. I will find you.

SCENE 6

FX:
KNOCKING

GAMA:
Yes, who is there?

CHIBWE:
It is me, Chibwe. What are you doing today?

GAMA:
Do you want to invite me somewhere? I do not drink beer, remember … do you want to buy me soft drinks?

CHIBWE:
Let’s go for a drink and then we will go together to harvest tobacco. You know we have started picking the lower leaves.

GAMA:
Eeeh, so you think I have nothing to do because I am talking about a soft drink? Or is the soft drink payment for the labour you are asking me to do?

CHIBWE:
No, how can I pay you for that? You are like my son. What work do you have today?

GAMA:
Have you forgotten that six to eight weeks have passed since our groundnuts germinated?

CHIBWE:
What is so special about eight weeks after germination?

GAMA:
I thought we were told to rebuild our ridges – what they call banking.

CHIBWE:
Oh yes, I know that. Banking makes sure that the ridge is big enough to cover the roots and that the groundnuts are under the soil.

GAMA:
Yes. Just tell me what you have come here for. What do you want, my brother in-law?

CHIBWE:
My brother in-law, I am busy with tobacco. I came to ask for your help with tobacco. I will not bank my groundnuts. Not at all. I’ve been thinking … Some farmers do zero tillage in groundnuts. So why do people create all this extra tillage work?

GAMA:
But your groundnuts are planted on ridges. They are not on flat land!

CHIBWE:
No, they are not on flat land. I think I made a mistake. I should have done zero tillage style.

GAMA:
Just because you’re busy, you say you will switch to zero tillage? No!

CHIBWE:
(IMPATIENTLY) Okay okay … I will bank. I guess that’s so the groundnuts are covered by soil, so they are not exposed to those insects we were talking about – ants and the other ones. So I think the risk of aflatoxin contamination is lower when you bank. That is why I will bank. Otherwise, I am tired of working, and I would stop tilling and use zero tillage right now.

GAMA:
What? You can’t stop tilling when you have already started working the soil. If you want to do zero tillage, you must start from the beginning of the season. Anyway, it’s a good decision to start banking, my in-law

CHIBWE:
I have one more question: When is the right time to make box ridges for harvesting water?

GAMA:
They say it depends on your area.

CHIBWE:
You mean if the first rains are always too little in your area, then you make box ridges before planting?

GAMA:
Yes. And if the area always has a problem in the middle of the rains, then you make box ridges when you weed. That way, you make sure that during the middle of the rains, you have enough moisture in the soil.

CHIBWE:
So if you have too much rain, do you remove the box ridges to avoid waterlogging?

GAMA:
Yes, you have to remove them.

CHIBWE:
I am told that they don’t need to be the same height as the ridges.

GAMA:
That’s right; the boxes need to let some water flow away. Remember the groundnuts do not like being in waterlogged conditions
.

CHIBWE:
You are right. I think I will make my box ridges during banking because they say that the water stress that comes towards maturity is what increases aflatoxin contamination. (Pause) Hey, this work is tough!

GAMA:
It’s always tough when you do a lot of work without a good plan. But don’t worry. You will get rich because you are using many good practices. Bye. Greet my sister and nephew.

CHIBWE:
I will

SCENE 7

FX:
SOUND OF CHOPPING TREES, AND A RADIO IN THE BACKGROUND PLAYING MUSIC, WITH CHIBWE SINGING ALONG

TEMBO:
Excuse me, Mr. Chibwe, what are those trees for?

NAMILAZI:
Welcome, Mr. Tembo. He cannot hear you – he is busy cutting trees for curing tobacco. Have a seat.

TEMBO:
Thank you.

NAMILAZI:
How are you?

TEMBO:
I am fine, and how are you?

CHIBWE:
Aaah,Mr Tembo … you are here. When did you come?

TEMBO:
When you were dancing to that Zambian love song!

CHIBWE:
Eeh, that song I was singing along with … That song reminds me of many things.

NAMILAZI:
(RAISES VOICE) It reminds him of women he met at auction floors in Lilongwe.

CHIBWE:
No, not that … just that I would have been rich by now if it were not for my alcohol abuse in those years. That was the song which was playing when I made a mistake in my life.

NAMILAZI:
Why do you deny that you remember other women when you hear this song?

CHIBWE:
Mr. Tembo, is it true that men who drink beer always go to the beer hall for prostitutes as well?

TEMBO:
I do not know because I have never taken any alcohol before. What do you go for, Mr. Chibwe?

NAMILAZI:
I have never believed his story about how he lost the money. I do not know whether the money was lost in the way he says, or whether a prostitute grabbed it from him.

TEMBO:
Why do you think that?

NAMILAZI:
Let him tell you the story.

CHIBWE:
You know I will never forget this story. I hate that day. I do not know why I decided to take beer in the town and didn’t come first to leave some money with Namilazi. The money was meant for an ox cart and cattle.

TEMBO:
What made you drink in town before coming home?

CHIBWE:
I wanted to drink a cold one from freezers. You know in the village we drink warm ones from water pots.

TEMBO AND NAMILAZI:
LAUGHTER

CHIBWE:
Then I started getting drunk, and the music I was singing along with was playing that day … I started dancing and went to the till to buy another beer.

NAMILAZI:
What happened then?

CHIBWE:
I never put my wallet back properly in my pocket. It fell out without me realizing. While I was dancing, I thought I saw somebody’s wallet. So I danced in a style where I could collect the wallet on the floor and nobody would see me pick it up. But then I put it in a side pocket other than the one I wanted to put it in …

TEMBO AND NAMILAZI:
LAUGHTER

CHIBWE:
… I said to myself that I should save my money and use the money I had just found for beer. I did not know that I was stealing my own money from my own wallet.

TEMBO:
Sheee … What happened?

CHIBWE:
I changed the type of beer I was drinking.

NAMILAZI:
(LAUGHS) To buy an expensive one?

CHIBWE:
Yes … and I bought a round of beer for my friends and the people in the hall.

TEMBO:
Couldn’t you tell by the colour of the wallet that it was yours?

CHIBWE:
Someone – maybe it was me – stepped on it and it got so dirty that I could not tell that I was stealing my own money.

TEMBO:
How did you realize it was your own money?

CHIBWE:
I wanted to book a room to sleep in town so that I could keep drinking overnight. I searched the pocket I thought I had put my wallet in, but I did not find it … I froze for two seconds and then checked the wallet I had found. Then I noticed by the contents that it was my own wallet. But I had spent half the money! I cried like a baby and left for home straightaway.

TEMBO:
Eh, how can you forget a story like that? You know, when you are out for business, go just for that business. Do not get carried away by things.

CHIBWE:
Yes, you are right. So why have you visited us, Mr. Tembo?

TEMBO:
I am here for business. I was with Mr. Gama, your in-law. I found him uprooting some weeds, and I noticed some weeds in your garden too. When are you going to uproot those weeds?

CHIBWE:
I am busy with tobacco. I will remove those weeds probably next week.

TEMBO:
No, Mr. Chibwe. If possible, you better uproot them this week.

CHIBWE:
Why? Can’t you see that my gold, my tobacco, will rot? It’s only a few days till next week. Today is Wednesday.

TEMBO:
In your story, you lost money in just in a few hours, not even a few days. Is this any different?

CHIBWE:
But what am I going to lose if I hesitate to uproot the weeds? Gama told me how important it was to weed when the groundnuts were young. But why is it so important to weed now?

TEMBO:
Namilazi, do you know what you are going to lose if you delay in uprooting weeds at the flowering stage?

NAMILAZI:
I think we will lose some yield …

TEMBO:
Yes! Those weeds disturb the groundnuts a lot; they disturb the roots’ penetration into the soil. Your groundnuts are flowering now. If you delay longer, you will disturb the fertilization of the flowers when you pull the weeds. Next week there will be many flowers. That will affect the yield directly.

NAMILAZI:
Are you saying that there is a specific time that farmers must uproot weeds in flowering groundnuts?

TEMBO:
Yes there is! When just a few groundnuts have started flowering. You cannot wait beyond that. You will have a very big loss.

NAMILAZI:
Mr. Chibwe, let’s agree to weed tomorrow. It rained today, so we won’t be picking tobacco tomorrow morning. Can’t we do the weeding tomorrow? It’s a small job, just uprooting some weeds by hand.

CHIBWE:
You are indeed intelligent, Namilazi … your daughters at university got it from you.

NAMILAZI:
Yes! My girls took after my intelligence. Don’t you remember that I was selected to go to secondary school in town together with my brother, but my parents could not afford for both of us and chose my brother?

CHIBWE:
Yes, I remember. But when you start talking about that, it sounds as if you want to divorce me!

TEMBO:
No, Chibwe, she is just remembering a loss of education just like you were remembering your lost money

CHIBWE:
I was just joking. You know I was lucky to marry this beautiful and intelligent wife. We will remove those weeds tomorrow, so that no ants or mice attack our groundnuts.

NAMILAZI:
You see, he is talking about insects and rodents that attack groundnuts at this stage of maturity. He is also intelligent, but his parents were too soft and didn’t force him to go further with school because they were rich.

TEMBO:
Yes, the mice and ants can increase the risk of aflatoxin contamination – which we are trying to avoid at all costs. This is the most delicate stage of the groundnuts in the field up to maturity and harvesting.

CHIBWE:
Okay. We will keep watching the groundnuts.

TEMBO:
Bye, Mr, and Mrs, Chibwe. Your family is admirable. You chat so freely like a brother and sister. I like it.

SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND FADE OUT UNDER BELOW

NARRATOR:
We will hear more from Mr. Chibwe and his friends next week. Now, we will again talk to an agricultural scientist. Today, I am in the studio with Dr. Jasoni, a researcher and scientist who studies groundnut breeding.

What have you brought to our dear listeners concerning aflatoxin today, Dr. Jasoni?

SCIENTIST:
Like I said last week, we are now aware that chuku, the black or greyish stuff which we used to clean off groundnuts, means that the groundnuts are contaminated with a dangerous poison called aflatoxin. The drama today talked about how we can prevent aflatoxin contamination through good land preparation practices.

NARRATOR:
Okay, so good land preparation can prevent aflatoxin. Why do you emphasize the word “good” and not just any land preparation practices?

SCIENTIST:
I am emphasizing the word “good” because many farmers believe that groundnut ridges should be made after the rains have come. But that is not true. In fact, if you prepare land after the rains, your groundnuts miss the good rains and mature when there are frequent late droughts.

NARRATOR:
What is wrong with late droughts?

SCIENTIST:
The groundnuts need moisture late in the season to mature fully. If water is not available in the soil late in the season when the pods are soft and not strong enough to keep out the germs, the groundnuts will be stressed.

NARRATOR:
You said “stressed.” Do you mean that their immune system gets weaker?

SCIENTIST:
Yes, it is as if the groundnuts’ immune system is weak, so that the pods allow the germs to enter. The germs produce the dangerous aflatoxin poison we are talking about. Groundnuts are plants, so they don’t really have an immune system, but it is similar to a person’s immune system being weak and unable to protect against infection.

NARRATOR:
What is the connection between late land preparation and planting with late droughts?

SCIENTIST:
Late land preparation leads to late planting, and that leads to late maturity in the groundnuts.

NARRATOR:
Do groundnuts that are planted early not face the problem of aflatoxin?

SCIENTIST:
They do, but not as much. There are other causes of aflatoxin contamination, which we will be sharing as you continue listening to this drama series. However, one way to strengthen the pods and prevent the germs from entering the pods is to apply agricultural lime at flowering. Lime strengthens the pods.

NARRATOR:
What else should a farmer know about good land preparation?

SCIENTIST:
Farmers should follow good spacing. If you plant on ridges, plant two rows on a flat ridge, at 30 centimetres apart. The ridges should be 75 centimetres apart.

NARRATOR:
If you do not plant on ridges, how should you plant?

SCIENTIST:
Plant in rows with 30 to 45 centimetres between rows. This spacing ensures that the groundnut plants cover the surface and keep the soil moist, as if you were mulching the soil. This reduces the late maturity stress we were talking about.

NARRATOR:
Thank you, Dr. Jasoni.

FX:
SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND UNDER

PRESENTER:
Today’s episode, Dodging a blow depends on whether you see the blow coming quickly enough,was produced by ___. Thank you for listening. We will now open our phone and SMS lines. With us today is name of expert. He/she can answer your questions about groundnuts and aflatoxin and about good practices to avoid it. Our phone numbers are ___ and our SMS lines are ___.

AFTER PHONE-IN SEGMENT

PRESENTER:
Until next week at the same time, this is ____ saying, take care of your groundnuts to avoid the rotting which contaminates them with aflatoxin. I will meet you next week, same time and same place.

SIGNATURE TUNE UP, HOLD, AND FADE OUT.

Part 3: A good thing does not come without labour.

Message of this episode:

Store groundnuts in pods to reduce the risk of aflatoxin.

The best way to store groundnuts is in well-aerated places.

To the broadcaster: The estimated running time for episode 4 is 25 minutes with beginning and end music.

CHARACTERS

CHIBWE

NAMILAZI

JAMES
TEMBO

GAMA

To the broadcaster: The estimated running time for episode 3 is 20-25 minutes with beginning and end music.

SIGNATURE TUNE

PRESENTER:
Today, we present episode 3 in our drama series, called A good thing does not come without labour, or Sikakudza kokha kaopa kulaula, as we say in Chichewa. I am your presenter, _____, bringing the drama to you every _______ afternoon on (name of radio station.)

Don’t forget that later in the program we will open our phone lines and SMS lines to discuss the causes and consequences of aflatoxin, and the precautions that farmers can take to avoid it. Our numbers for phone calls are _____ and our SMS lines are _____.

SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND CROSS FADE INTO BELOW

NARRATOR:
Rotting groundnuts have to be avoided at all costs. Eating rotten nuts – even those which our eyes and mouth cannot tell are rotten – is very dangerous. When we eat rotten nuts, a poison called aflatoxin can accumulate in our bodies and cause liver cancer in adults and stunted growth in children.

We are presenting this drama series to tell you about this poison, aflatoxin, and about practices that farmers can follow to prevent aflatoxin from contaminating their groundnuts. Today’s episode will talk about how to harvest, dry and store your groundnuts in ways that avoid aflatoxin contamination.

SIGNATURE TUNE

SCENE 1

FX:
SOUND OF BIRDS AND FARMERS DIGGING IN FIELDS

NAMILAZI:
Mr. Chibwe, my husband, now that the groundnuts are ready, how are we going to store them? Are we going to uproot the groundnuts and hang them upside down to dry?

CHIBWE:
Namilazi, are you still thinking about leaving them here in the garden to dry – the way you have always done it?

NAMILAZI:
Yes – what is the problem with that? I thought that was the recommended way.

CHIBWE:
I can’t risk losing my groundnuts by leaving them in the field. They could be stolen.

NAMILAZI:
I was just asking how we are going to do it. I am not trying to tell you the right way … I just want to hear what you think.

CHIBWE:
Namilazi, I think we should first of all dig and uproot as many groundnuts as we think can manage to pick today. Then we will take those harvested groundnuts home.

NAMILAZI:
Ok, that is a good idea. Where will you dry the groundnuts at home?

CHIBWE:
On the roof of our kitchen.

NAMILAZI:
No, my husband! Tell me you are joking.

CHIBWE:
I do not have time to joke. I mean it.

NAMILAZI:
On the iron sheets? What did Mr. Tembo say about drying groundnuts on iron sheets? Is that one of the best ways of drying the groundnuts?

CHIBWE:
(RAISING HIS VOICE) I do not care what Mr. Tembo said. All I want is to take my groundnuts home. They will dry without accumulating aflatoxin and I will sell them all – that is what I want.

NAMILAZI:
Then why did we bother weeding three times, and buying that medicine … what was it called?

CHIBWE:
(SHOUTING) You’re speaking about it – you should know the name.

NAMILAZI:
Eee … where is this anger coming from? You can’t even remember the name of the fungicide you bought? Was it Thiram? Why are you angry, Mr. Chibwe?

CHIBWE:
Just tell me what you are driving at. What are you trying to tell me?

GAMA:
(COMING ON-MIC) Eeeh … what is your problem, Namilazi, and my in-law Chibwe?

CHIBWE:
Ask your sister.

GAMA:
I am asking both of you.

JAMES:
We heard you shouting at mam at the top of your voice, dad. What is your problem?

SILENCE

JAMES:
Dad, we are talking to you. Why were you shouting?

SILENCE

NAMILAZI:
He doesn’t care about following the instructions we were given. He doesn’t care about making sure that we prevent aflatoxin and our groundnuts can be eaten and will germinate.

CHIBWE:
I did not say that. Did I say that?

NAMILAZI:
Then what did you say?

CHIBWE:
I said we are going to dry the groundnuts on the roof of the kitchen, so that the groundnuts dry as fast as possible. Then I can sell them and forget them. That is what I said.

JAMES:
Is that what dad said, mam?

NAMILAZI:
Yes, he said that.

JAMES:
Mam, what is your problem with that?

GAMA:
Do you remember that it is not recommended to dry the groundnuts on iron sheets, or on the floor, but only in a well-aerated place like a rack?

JAMES:
I know that. They said drying the groundnuts on the roof would cause them to dry too quickly and that very few would germinate.

GAMA:
My in-law, you have weeded three times … do you want all that work to be in vain? You are uprooting on time just when there are black spots inside the pods when you open them, and when the groundnuts have the full red colour of CG7. Do you want all this work to be for nothing?

CHIBWE:
I am thinking about aflatoxin too. Drying on the roof won’t cause groundnuts to rot and have aflatoxin at all. In fact, the groundnuts will dry even quicker. Right? As for germination, I don’t care. My groundnuts are for sale, not for planting.

JAMES:
(SLOWLY) I guess dad is right … drying the groundnuts on a roof of iron sheets will not make them contaminated by aflatoxin. But they will dry quicker. The problem with the method is that they may not germinate when we plant them.

GAMA:
Yes, we know the groundnuts may dry quicker. But what about the quality of the groundnuts? Will it be the same as drying in a recommended way?

CHIBWE:
(IMPATIENT) Just tell me what you think would be the best and quickest way to dry our groundnuts.

JAMES:
On the rack.

CHIBWE:
I do not have time and materials to make a rack.

JAMES:
I have the materials and I will make it for you. Mam, can I use that worn out reed mat to make the rack?

NAMILAZI:
Yes, my son.

JAMES:
Thank you, mam. I am going home to make the rack … but don’t quarrel about useless things again!

GAMA:
Many people in the village have been admiring your garden, Chibwe. They want to plant the way you did this year, two rows on a ridge.

JAMES:
Yes, dad, many people are saying that it’s amazing your groundnuts didn’t wilt during the drought – the groundnuts covered the soil so well, like mulch.

GAMA:
Just look at your groundnuts! Many on a plant and all of them well-developed. Sheee … very admirable. Do you want all your efforts to be for nothing?

CHIBWE:
It won’t be for nothing. My son will build the rack to make sure that the groundnuts are well-dried, and we will sell to that buyer who bought from you last season.

GAMA:
This year you are going to be a millionaire!

CHIBWE:
Of course.

GAMA:
Bye. I will help James, because I would like to use the rack for drying mine too.

CHIBWE:
(A LITTLE WORRIED) Won’t you be too late? Don’t you think your groundnuts will start rotting in the soil by the time I finish drying my groundnuts?

GAMA:
I was just trying to find out if you were back to your normal self. (LAUGH)

CHIBWE:
(SHARPLY) Get out of this garden, you boys.

SCENE 2

FX:
CUTTING TREES WITH PANGA(MACHETE)

TEMBO:
What are you making with your uncle Gama, young man?

JAMES:
Mr. Tembo, we are making a rack.

TEMBO:
What for?

GAMA:
For drying the groundnuts.

TEMBO:
Have you started harvesting yet?

JAMES:
I left dad digging and uprooting the groundnuts, but they have not started picking them yet
.

TEMBO:
Leave this and come with me. Let’s talk to your parents.

JAMES:
What’s wrong, sir?

TEMBO:
Just leave that. Follow me.

GAMA:
(TO JAMES, QUIETLY IN A WORRIED VOICE)Shaa … what have we done wrong now?

SCENE TRANSITION

SCENE 3

FX:
SOUND OF BIRDS

JAMES:
BREATHING HEAVILY, TIRED

NAMILAZI:
James, what’s wrong? I thought you were supposed to build a rack? Have you finished? Mr. Chibwe, look! James is back.

JAMES:
Mam,I haven’t finished, only that … (BREATHING HEAVILY)

CHIBWE:
Why are you pointing towards home and breathing heavily? What happened to Gama? Speak – you are growing up!

JAMES:
Dad,nothing happened to Gama. He is fine, and there he comes with Mr. Tembo.

CHIBWE:
Why do you look so tired and worried?

JAMES:
Iran fast to tell you that Mr. Tembo stopped me from building the rack.

TEMBO:
(COMING ON-MIC) Yes, I stopped them and brought them here, so that you can all hear why I stopped them.

CHIBWE:
Welcome, Mr. Tembo.

TEMBO:
Your groundnuts look well-matured, Mr. Chibwe. It‘s good that you are harvesting this early. It is very encouraging.

CHIBWE:
Thank you for the nice compliment. We want the buyers to scramble for our groundnuts.

TEMBO:
I am happy that you want very good quality groundnuts. That is why I am here now…. You know, rack drying might be good for equatorial Africa where they get heavy rains throughout the year. But in places like Malawi, we are encouraging something that will work better here. It’s a new method called the Mandela cock.

CHIBWE:
Mandela cock? What is that?

TEMBO:
You dry the groundnuts right in your garden.

NAMILAZI:
Hey … that is a non-starter! I already told him to do that and he refused!

CHIBWE:
(SHARPLY)Silence! Can’t you see that men are talking? Don’t you have any respect?

NAMILAZI:
(PAUSE AND QUIETLY)Mr. Chibwe, my husband, you know I have respect. Is Mr. Tembo just any man? Why shouldn’t I talk about issues that concern me and my family to the adviser who can support us?

JAMES:
Tell him, mam … Dad, we’ve left behind those times when women were not supposed to say anything when men are talking … But I am interested in the Mandela cock, Mr. Tembo. How do you make it?

TEMBO:
Mr. Chibwe, I am disappointed with what you said to your wife. Therefore, I will not explain the Mandela cock. I am leaving.

NAMILAZI:
Yes! Yes, what he said was shameful! How can he stop me from speaking to you, our adviser? And, if he says this while you’re both here, what will he say when you have gone?

TEMBO:
You are right. This type of man oppresses women, not allowing them to do things that can support their families.

CHIBWE:
I am very sorry, Mr. Tembo. Forgive me. I don’t know why Satan is following me today. Since this morning, we have been quarrelling about useless things … I am sorry. Go away from me, Satan! I will not say any silly things again, I beg you.

NAMILAZI:
Mr. Tembo, forgive him. He is indeed sorry. I know my husband … it is not that he is jealous of me talking to you. He must be joking. He jokes a lot.

TEMBO:
Okay, I will continue just because you backed him up.

GAMA:
(IMPATIENTLY) Mandela …

JAMES:
… cock!

TEMBO:
Right! Give me the hoe. I will demonstrate by making a Mandela cock right here.

SCENE TRANSITION

SCENE 4

FX:
SOUND OF DIGGING THE SOIL

NAMILAZI:
This work is making you dirty, Mr. Tembo. Gama and James, take the hoe from him.

TEMBO:
No, Namilazi and Chibwe, this is my work. That is why I wear these gumboots – so I’m prepared for whatever comes my way. Now, to make a Mandela cock, we start by making a round, flat platform of soil about 30 centimetres high and one metre wide. We trample on it so that is hard, because we are going to dry our groundnuts on top of this.

JAMES:
We’re going to dry our groundnuts there?

TEMBO:
Yes. Then we take the uprooted groundnut plants and stack them all around the circular base with the pods facing up, the way we have always dried the groundnuts.

FX:
SOUND OF DRY LEAVES

CHIBWE:
It is looking beautiful with the groundnuts exposed to the sky.

TEMBO:
But we don’t want the groundnuts to be exposed to the sky. We want to avoid this because the groundnuts will dry too quickly and will lose colour and quality.

FX:
SOUND OF DRY LEAVES

TEMBO:
Give me those groundnuts … yes, then we stack the other groundnut plants in a circle around the sides of the platform, with the groundnuts on the inside of the circle.

NAMILAZI:
Okay, so what next?

TEMBO:
We continue to pile other groundnut plants on top of this first layer. We keep adding plants with the groundnuts facing inside and a circular space at the centre of the stack for air to circulate. We keep on adding these plants in a circle, building up the circle like a small hut.

NAMILAZI:
But there is an open space in the middle. What are we going to do with that?

TEMBO:
That space stays open for now. We build up the stack. As we build it up, the circular space at the centre gets smaller and smaller. The whole stack is shaped like a cone. By the time the stack reaches one and half metres high, the hole is very small. Then you just close the hole by placing a bundle on top, with the groundnuts inside and the leaves outside like this.

JAMES:
Wow, that is beautiful. It’s like a small hut built with groundnut plants … all that I can see are leaves. No one would guess that these leaves are covering groundnuts inside.

CHIBWE:
Yes, people would think that you are keeping the leaves for other uses.

TEMBO:
This is a Mandela cock, and the groundnuts will dry at a slow but sure pace inside. The colour and quality of your groundnuts will remain very good. In a Mandela cock, even if the rains come, the groundnuts will not get wet. The rain will just drain off the leaves.

JAMES:
It’s easy. As mam and dad are digging and uprooting, I will make these Mandela cocks. I was worried when you told me to stop what I was doing and come to speak to my father. I was wondering if I had wronged you.

TEMBO:
Okay, I am sorry to put you through that …

JAMES:
It’s okay.

TEMBO:
You know, we discovered that the groundnuts dry too quickly when we expose them to the sun or use other ways of drying them. The Mandela cock hides the groundnuts inside, but with an opening in the middle for air to circulate and to dry the groundnuts while maintaining the quality.

CHIBWE:
Thank you; I will use the Mandela cock. All I need to do is come from time to time over the next few weeks and check if the groundnuts are fully dry.

TEMBO:
Yes, that is all. But I want James and Gama to come to the demonstration plot tomorrow. I want you to demonstrate the Mandela cock, while your parents continue digging and uprooting more groundnuts here.

JAMES:
Yes, we will come. Thank you, Mr. Tembo, for that honour.

TEMBO:
Keep up the good work. I will bring the manual groundnut shelling machines soon. They are already ordered but the consignment is stuck somewhere. I need to leave you now.

CHIBWE:
Take care. We appreciate your support.

SCENE TRANSITION

SCENE 5

FX:
SOUND OF SHELLING GROUNDNUTS BY HAND

TEMBO:
How many bags have you filled with shelled nuts, Mr. Chibwe?

CHIBWE:
Not many, Mr. Tembo. We are just starting … but my hands are hurting. If you hadn’t told us not to spread water on the groundnuts, I would have already splashed some.

TEMBO:
Don’t worry. I brought some hand-shelling machines to make your job easy. I have them here.

NAMILAZI:
That is good. I wondered why you were teaching us about these things without bringing some for us!

TEMBO:
We brought two machines for testing. I will leave both with you, Namilazi, as the treasurer of Tisungane club. Give me your feedback tomorrow.

NAMILAZI:
Can you teach us how to use them?

TEMBO:
It‘s simple. Both of you need to work at the same time. One fills the machine with groundnuts little by little, while the other turns the shelling teeth with this handle.

FX:
SOUND OF SHELLING MACHINE

CHIBWE:
It’s easy.

TEMBO:
I tested your groundnuts and they seem well-dried. Remember to keep the groundnuts in jute bags on the rack – the same rack you kept the seeds on last time in the house. I hope you did not destroy that rack.

CHIBWE:
No, we still have it.

TEMBO:
That‘s good … Look, your nuts are pure red. No discolouring, just very beautiful. I don’t think these nuts will fail the aflatoxin test. Just keep on storing them well.

NAMILAZI:
What do we do with the nuts that break when we shell them with the machine?

TEMBO:
You can grade out the broken ones. You can roast them and make peanut butter, or sell them in small plastic bags like people use to sell freezes and water. That is what farmers and businessmen in Uganda do when they sell groundnuts in town.

NAMILAZI:
That‘s a good idea. We could even make sinjiro (
Editor’s note:
groundnut flour) and pack it in small packages to sell.

TEMBO:
Yes, that’s good, madam. You could even buy an oil extractor to press oil from the nuts on your own. You can sell the residue from oil-making for animal feed, or use it to make relish.

CHIBWE:
We cannot manage that machine. Pressing machines are expensive.

TEMBO:
You can manage it.

CHIBWE:
How?

TEMBO:
There are two ways. You can get a loan from the bank with our organization as a guarantor, or we can buy and rent them to you.

NAMILAZI:
Could we buy the shellers?

CHIBWE:
Yes. We could buy them and hire them out the way the tobacco people hire out pressing machines.

TEMBO:
That is another good idea. You can rent them out for a fee. We will discuss that with the groups.

FX:
TRANSITIONAL MUSIC

NARRATOR:
Mr. Chibwe and his friends will be back next week. Now we come to the segment where we chat with the scientist. As usual, I am with our regular agricultural scientist, Dr. Jasoni.

SCIENTIST:
Let me take this opportunity to thank the farmers and other listeners who are following this drama series.

NARRATOR:
Dr. Jasoni, what will we talk about today?

SCIENTIST:
Dear listeners, today we will talk about another very sensitive stage of production where groundnuts can be contaminated with aflatoxin if we are not careful. And that is harvesting, drying and storing.

NARRATOR:
Okay, so harvesting is a very sensitive stage. When should farmers harvest their groundnuts, Dr. Jasoni?

SCIENTIST:
Good question. Farmers should harvest the groundnuts when they have matured fully and when you open the pods, there are black spots inside the pods. That is the right time to harvest.

NARRATOR:
What happens if you delay your harvest?

SCIENTIST:
We said that this is a very sensitive stage. So a lot of aflatoxin contamination can take place if you delay harvesting. In the soil, which at this time is dry, germs can attack. This is also the time when termites and mice can attack the groundnuts, exposing them to the germs which cause aflatoxin contamination.

NARRATOR:
How should farmers harvest?

SCIENTIST:
We encourage farmers to uproot the groundnut plants. Since many soils are compacted and hard, farmers must dig in the soil to loosen the groundnut plants, then lift the plant and shake the soil off. Then they are ready for drying.

NARRATOR:
You are saying the groundnuts must be dried first and not picked – why?

SCIENTIST:
Yes, drying first, then picking later. The quality of the groundnuts is best when they dry slowly, not quickly. They dry too quickly when we expose them to direct sunlight.

NARRATOR:
So by drying slowly, will the groundnuts be more valuable?

SCIENTIST:
Yes. The groundnuts need to be appealing in the eyes of the buyer. So farmers should try to maintain the quality of their groundnuts by using the Mandela cock, as described in today’s episode.

NARRATOR:
Thank you, Dr. Jasoni, for today’s messages. We will be back next week with a new episode.

SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND UNDER

PRESENTER:
Today’s episode, A good thing does not come without labour, was produced by ___. Thank you for listening.

We will now open our phone and SMS lines. With us today is name of expert. He/she can answer your questions about groundnuts and aflatoxin and about good practices to avoid it. Our phone numbers are ___ and our SMS lines are ___.

AFTER PHONE-IN

SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND HOLD UNDER BELOW

PRESENTER:
Until next week at the same time, this is ____ saying, take care of your groundnuts to avoid the rotting which contaminates them with aflatoxin. I will meet you next week, same time and same place.

SIGNATURE TUNE UP, HOLD, AND FADE OUT.

Part 4: When it’s yours, you are free to open and see it any time you want

Messages of this episode:

Store groundnuts in pods to reduce the risk of aflatoxin.

The best way to store groundnuts is in well-aerated places.

To the broadcaster: The estimated running time for episode 4 is 25 minutes with beginning and end music

CHARACTERS:

JAMES

CHIBWE

NAMILAZI

TEMBO

GAMA

PRESENTER:
Welcome to our drama series which I ____, your presenter, bring to you every _____ afternoon on (name of station). This is the fourth and final episode, called, When it’s yours, you have liberty to open and see it any time you want, or kanthu nkako uvundukula nuona, as we say in Chichewa. We will now begin the drama. After the drama, we will open our phone and SMS lines to talk about aflatoxin in groundnuts. Our numbers for phone calls are ____, and our SMS lines are ___.

SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND CROSS-FADE INTO BELOW

NARRATOR:
Today we are bringing you the fourth and last episode of our series on aflatoxin. Later on in the program, we will have a discussion with Dr. Jasoni about aflatoxin in groundnuts. In this episode, we will talk about the best ways to store groundnuts. Now it is time for our drama.

SCENE TRANSITION CROSS-FADING INTO BELOW

SCENE 1

FX:
SOUND OF BICYCLE FALLING

JAMES:
Dad, pick up your bicycle. Why are you just leaving it on the ground?

FX:
OPENING DOOR AND BANGING DOOR SHUT

GAMA:
Aah, in-law Chibwe, come and tell us about the groundnut market at the trading centre.

NAMILAZI:
Gama and James, leave him alone. I know my husband … he is frustrated, but he will be ok after he regains some energy. I think he has bad news, so leave him. If we force him to talk, he will be angry at every little thing.

JAMES:
Mam, you are right, let’s give him some time.

FX:
SOUND OF GROUNDNUTS BEING TRASFERRED FROM BAG TO CONTAINER

JAMES:
I am finished. That was my last full tin of groundnuts to grade. I want to go and play football with my friends.

FX:
DOOR OPENS

CHIBWE:
Yes, my son, you can go now if you want. Leave these useless tasks and do what you want to do.

JAMES:
I didn’t mean that the work was useless, dad.

CHIBWE:
No, I know you didn’t mean that. Don’t be afraid – you haven’t done anything wrong. In fact, I think groundnut farming is a waste of time…. (LAMENTING) Why did I start growing groundnuts when the prices were going down?

JAMES:
It just means you are not consistent, dad. You joined only when you saw money. Every farmer does that.

CHIBWE:
What do you mean? Gama, do you understand your nephew?

GAMA:
Don’t involve me. Just talk with your son.

CHIBWE:
(COMPLAINING) I was wondering … why did groundnuts become a man’s crop …? Growing groundnuts on a larger scale was just a waste of time. (NOT COMPLAINING) But explain to me, my son, what do you mean when you say that I am not consistent?

JAMES:
I will explain, dad, but for me to explain better, tell me the price of groundnuts at the market.

CHIBWE:
The market price is very low this year. Imagine. I made all that effort to ensure that I had good groundnuts without aflatoxin and with good colour … but the buyers are paying only 200 Kwacha (
Editor’s note:
60 US cents) per kilo this year.

GAMA:
What? I thought they were paying 300 to 350 when the buying season started. Do I have wrong information?

CHIBWE:
No. They say the prices are going down because the supply is higher than the demand.

GAMA:
Imagine from a little over one dollar last year to half a dollar per kilogram this year! What went wrong?

CHIBWE:
You are lucky, my in-law. Last year you hit the jackpot. You know what … when I heard this news, it felt like ice was moving all over my body. I had no energy to even ride the bicycle. I sat down without energy.

NAMILAZI:
I can imagine how you felt, my husband. Even now as you are speaking, I don’t have the energy to continue grading the groundnuts.

GAMA:
Me neither.

JAMES:
Dad, remember when I said that you are not consistent with your farming? You move like the wind, going where you hear there is money instead of creating your own ideas for making money.

CHIBWE:
Explain, my son. Do you have an idea for us to make money?

JAMES:
We need to remain consistent. We should grow the same crops in the same quantities every year, and we will perfect our farming as time goes by. There will be bad years like this year. But we will find ways of getting around low market prices. Some years we will sell fresh nuts because they have good prices. Other years, we will add value by processing the nuts into other products.

GAMA:
It sounds good when you say it … as if it was easy. Adding value is indeed good, but the problem is we don’t have enough capital to purchase the equipment we need to add value.

NAMILAZI:
I think I am with James. When the price of fresh nuts is low, we can add value. For example, the price of cooking oil will not go down. So we can process our nuts into cooking oil. Five litres of oil sells for not less than 4000 Kwacha (
Editors’ note:
$12 US). I think we need less than 20 kilos of nuts to make five litres of oil. The residue from making oil can be sold too.

CHIBWE:
Yes, you are right. But let’s find out exactly how many kilograms we need for a litre of oil before we venture into an oil-making business. Otherwise, we could have a business without profit!

GAMA:
OK. But you need to find out where you can buy the oil pressing machines.

CHIBWE:
Mr. Tembo said he can support us to get loans. There is a project called One Village One Product, and there are many other initiatives that support farmers to process their harvest into manufactured products. You know, we could also buy the pressing machine and charge a fee per kilo to people who bring their nuts to make oil.

JAMES:
That is true, dad. Another thing is that there are very few people in Malawi who sell peanut butter. If you process half a kilogram of nuts into peanut butter, I think you can sell it for 500 Kwacha (
Editor’s note:
$1.50 US).

CHIBWE:
Ok. Let’s keep on grading the nuts, putting the small shrunken ones aside, and separating the big ones and the broken ones. The rotten and shrunken ones should be thrown away. We can eat the ones that get broken during shelling and the graded ones, but that’s all.

GAMA:
Where is that buyer who was testing for aflatoxin last year? Is he around?

CHIBWE:
I don’t know. I think he will still come. But maybe he is also buying cheaply this year. I haven’t seen him. They say he is buying only from those farmers he has a contract with.

GAMA:
But didn’t we sign an agreement with him, through Mr. Tembo’s NGO? We were going to supply him with 100 tonnes of low aflatoxin groundnuts of the CG7 and Nsinjiro varieties at a certain price.

CHIBWE:
What was the price we agreed on?

GAMA:
I have forgotten. But even if we remember, do you think he will buy at a higher price than other buyers?

NAMILAZI:
It is a requirement. It’s part of the contract. The contract set a minimum price if there is a big supply, and a maximum price if there is a low supply.

CHIBWE:
Those conditions sound good, but they are hard to implement. People change contracts when they want to, or they may decide to go to other places to buy. If he’s going to buy from us, why haven’t I seen him in the market?

JAMES:
Maybe he is waiting for the groundnuts to dry well. He knows that the Mandela Cock dries the groundnuts at a slower pace than the usual drying methods.

GAMA:
Although I am not sure I agree with what James is saying, I will give him the benefit of the doubt … so I agree with him that we should either sell to the buyer with whom we signed a contract or simply add value.

CHIBWE:
I doubt that he will buy at a high price. I heard that even the bigger associations in Malawi are buying at low prices, and so their farmers are smuggling groundnuts to vendors.

GAMA:
What wrong did we farmers do to these buyers? We were told that the associations are good, but even the associations are buying at lower prices. That causes problems, instead of showing the advantages of working co-operatively in tough years like this year.

CHIBWE:
We farmers are in trouble. It seems like nobody cares about us.

SCENE TRANSITION

SCENE 2

FX:
VEHICLE HONKING. DOOR OF HOUSE OPENS AND CLOSES.

CHIBWE:
Mr. Tembo. How are you? Won’t you come out of the car?

TEMBO:
No, I am rushing. I came to tell you that, even though other buyers are paying very low prices, our buyers are coming this weekend and will give a very good price. These are the buyers who wanted you and the others to grow high quality groundnuts with low aflatoxin.

CHIBWE:
What price?

TEMBO:
Grade one groundnuts with very low aflatoxin and dried with the Mandela cock will be at 600 Kwacha. And grade B without aflatoxin but dried in the usual ways will be 400 Kwacha.

CHIBWE:
(VERY HAPPY) Thank you very much! I will be a millionaire this year. But why is this buyer so honest?

TEMBO:
We signed a contract with him. We were doing contract farming. So you need to supply the contracted quantity. We will have to pay him for his loss if you sold the groundnuts to someone else. Do not even buy from other farmers. We know the varieties we were distributing.

CHIBWE:
Did you know we were thinking about buying from other farmers, the ones who are complaining about low prices?

TEMBO:
Yes, I knew that. But if you buy from other farmers, what guarantee do you have about aflatoxin?! Do you want to lose a market because of other people’s carelessness?

CHIBWE:
You are right. …I will not make that mistake. After all my striving and hard work to maintain the quality of the groundnuts, I will be relieved to finally sell them … (PROUDLY) Hey, people will envy us! While they are selling at 50 cents, we will sell at one dollar 50! This is great.

TEMBO:
That is the advantage of contract farming. The buyers tell you in advance the type of quality they are looking for and you agree on a minimum price. The contract is legally binding.

CHIBWE:
Thank you for being so clever on our behalf. I will start grading now.

TEMBO:
What? You have not started grading?

CHIBWE:
No … but …

TEMBO:
The buyer is coming and you have ungraded groundnuts? You will miss this chance! Why, Mr. Chibwe?

CHIBWE:
I was frustrated with the low prices at the market.

TEMBO:
Did you want to smuggle your groundnuts to other traders? Would you do that, Mr. Chibwe?

CHIBWE:
No, it’s not like that.

TEMBO:
Then why are you only starting to grade right now? Do you know that you will put me in a serious breach of contract if you smuggle our groundnuts to other buyers?

CHIBWE:
It’s not what you think! We just stopped grading at the fast pace we started with. We were very slow because we were frustrated with the prices. So give us some time to finish grading.

TEMBO:
Go back to grading and tell your friends Gama and other members of your club what I have just told you. The buyer will come in one week’s time. You better work overtime grading to make sure that I grant you another contract next season. Otherwise, if you have smuggled the groundnuts, I will not be part of your negotiation next season.

CHIBWE:
Do not worry. All is well. I believe everybody will go back to the working spirit we started the season with. We will grade and supply our buyer with enough good quality groundnuts.

TEMBO:
Remember to shell only those nuts that you want to sell. The rest should remain in pods in bags in a granary.

CHIBWE:
Yes, sir, that is what we have done. We shelled only what we plan to sell. And we keep groundnuts for food and seed in pods on well-aerated raised places on the rack.

TEMBO:
Tell allthefarmers – even those who are not in our group – to listen to the radio markets that Farm Radio Malawi and a number of radio stations have just launched. You will hear a wide choice of prices on the radio. So you can negotiate on the basis of knowing where the markets are and what the prices are.

CHIBWE:
Okay, I will tell them.

TEMBO:
But do not smuggle our groundnuts to other buyers!

FX:
CAR ENGINE STARTS

SCENE TRANSITION

SCENE 3

FX:
NUTS BEING PUT IN A CONTAINER

CHIBWE:
I have counted 10 tins for James to grade and 10 tins for you, Namilazi, and I will grade 12 tins.

NAMILAZI:
No, my husband … that means you will grade four 50-kilogram bags but James and I will only do three and a half tonight.

CHIBWE:
Yes, and all work on groundnuts will end there. Whoever finishes first will go to bed.

NAMILAZI:
I will finish grading mine tomorrow. Or, if both of you finish early, you can help me. Look, I was cooking your food when you started grading yours.

CHIBWE:
There is no tomorrow here. Remember the buyer is coming tomorrow, and we don’t know where he will start collecting his groundnuts. Who knows? Mr. Tembo may bring the buyer to our house first.

JAMES:
Yes, in the same way he has been bringing things and technologies to our house first. You are right, dad. We missed the target that day we relaxed.

NAMILAZI:
But I was cooking when you both started grading.

JAMES:
Mam, we’re not including those groundnuts we graded while you were cooking. So whenever you finish, you go to sleep. Anyway, don’t worry, mam, if I finish early, I will help you.

NAMILAZI:
It’s always you giving me a hand and not your dad. I guess you will make a good husband, James.

CHIBWE:
Yes, he will; he is taking after me!

FX:
ALL LAUGH

NAMILAZI:
Yes, I think he is taking after you. You used to love me like that when James was young. You took me to the borehole on a bicycle.

CHIBWE:
You see. That was because there was nobody else to support you. Our girls were at school, James was young …

JAMES:
Why have you changed now, dad?

CHIBWE:
I have not changed. I still love your mam the same way I used to, but I leave some jobs to you, my son, to assist your mam.

JAMES:
I guess you are right, dad. Sometimes you tell me to assist mam, when you see that she looks tired.

CHIBWE:
You see? Anyway, I see our family becoming a millionaire tomorrow from groundnut farming. But the aflatoxin testing still worries me.

NAMILAZI:
Why are you worried? We have followed all the messages we were told to follow. Look, you can hardly find a rotten nut in our groundnuts! I am confident we will be number one in terms of the quality, the low aflatoxin, and the quantity of our nuts.

JAMES:
Me too; I have that same feeling.

CHIBWE:
If both of you are that confident, who am I to doubt you? Me too – I will pretend to be confident!

FX:
SOUND OF A ROOSTER

JAMES:
Hey, it is tomorrow and we are still grading?

CHIBWE:
What is the time now?

NAMILAZI:
My cell phone says it’s half past 2 a.m. in the morning.

JAMES:
I have spent more than 22 hours without sleep! Remember I woke up at four a.m. to start grading.

CHIBWE:
Did you think becoming a millionaire just came easily without any work? It is proportional to your labour. Remember, a good thing does not come without labour.

JAMES:
I have finished mine. I will start helping mam now.

NAMILAZI:
No, thanks, you can go and have a sleep, my baby. I will finish with your dad.

JAMES:
(TIRED) Eeehh … It’s time to rest. The work is over. Hey, during all this work, all we heard was groundnuts and aflatoxin, groundnuts and aflatoxin … we should hear another story now! No more selfishness this year, Dad. We don’t want to hear about accidently losing money to thieves or misfortunes at beer drinking places.

CHIBWE:
No, don’t worry – I want to maintain this status of a millionaire. Remember we talked about adding value? I think we should buy a maize mill. We can shorten the distance to the maize mill by having one in our village. What do you think?

JAMES:
(OFF-MIC) It’s a very good idea. But you are talking about it now so that I will not go to bed – you know that I would love to talk about it and I would stay. But we can talk about that tomorrow. Good morning … since it’s already morning.

NAMILAZI:
Good night, our son.

SCENE TRANSITION

SCENE 4

CHIBWE:
(DRUNK) Yes, I am a millionaire! I am a millionaire. Namilazi, you are married to a millionaire. Namilazi! If I combine my tobacco sales and my groundnut sales, how many millions is that?

NAMILAZI:
Mr. Chibwe, you are shouting.

CHIBWE:
Yes, I am happy now that we have benefited from the work of our hands. Our sweat has paid off. Don’t worry, Namilazi, the thieves cannot attack us. The money is in the bank! (PAUSE) Did you bank it, Namilazi?

NAMILAZI:
I thought we banked it together.

CHIBWE:
Yes, we did. I did not steal my own money this time?

NAMILAZI:
No, my husband, you did not steal. I witnessed the banking and gave you some little money to drink beer.

CHIBWE:
Thanks. I thought I was dreaming that I was a millionaire but I had used all my money like that bad year I will never forget. Tembo … Tembo is sharp. Nobody can cheat him.

NAMILAZI:
If you are drunk, just sleep.

CHIBWE:
I am not drunk. Tembo is a good boy. You know, Namilazi … Hard work pays. Some people who grew one acre wanted to have as much money as me!

NAMILAZI:
Ssh! Mr. Chibwe, go to bed, please.

CHIBWE:
Am I lying that people who planted half an acre wanted to have as much money as me? They said the buyers were biased to buy my groundnuts at such a high price.

NAMILAZI:
The buyer is very experienced. I mean, how did he know that we followed all the instructions? He even knew that we harvested our groundnuts at the right time.

CHIBWE:
He said that the colour of our nuts was just super and the colour told him a good story. The quality of the nuts made the buyer smile. He paid without any arguments.

NAMILAZI:
You see, that is the advantage of following the instructions of field assistants.

CHIBWE:
Yes, you are right, my wife. Where is James?

NAMILAZI:
He is still in town. He went to buy the shoes that he has been admiring and that some of his friends have.

CHIBWE:
This year, I will not make any more mistakes. I will involve you, my wife, in all plans. We shall fulfil our dreams together.

NAMILAZI:
That’s my husband.

SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND FADE OUT UNDER BELOW

NARRATOR:
That is the end of the fourth and final part of our drama, A friend in need is a friend indeed.As always, I am in the studio with Dr. Jasoni, a researcher and scientist who works on groundnut breeding. What is the main message for today, Dr. Jasoni?

SCIENTIST:
The best way to keep groundnuts safe is to store them in their pods in well-aerated places.

NARRATOR:
But that is the same way to best keep groundnuts for planting.

SCIENTIST:
Exactly. We want farmers to store harvested groundnuts in the groundnut granary, but they should be unshelled. You should shell the nuts only when you want to sell them.

NARRATOR:
How should one build this granary you are talking about?

SCIENTIST:
In the same way we have always built granaries, with bamboo. This is a woven granary that allows air to pass through the walls. Do not smear the walls with mud. You can smear the floor with mud to prevent the groundnuts from falling out of the granary and onto the ground.

NARRATOR:
How high should the granary be raised off the ground?

SCIENTIST:
Good question. Farmers lose their harvest to rats when the granary is not raised off the ground. You need to raise the granary between 50 centimetres to one metre off the ground, and attach a rat guard. A rat guard is a band of metal which surrounds the granary like a skirt and stops rats from climbing into the granary. You must also build a grass roof for your granary.

NARRATOR:
Are there any other issues to talk about today?

SCIENTIST:
We want to emphasize a message we have talked about before – that farmers should not eat shrunken and withered nuts. These nuts contain aflatoxin. These are the nuts which do not have strong pods because they had not yet matured, and they withered as they dried. We want farmers to stop eating these nuts. Farmers deserve quality nuts. So they can eat broken nuts and whole nuts, but these shrunken ones are not good for their health.

NARRATOR:
Thank you, Dr. Jasoni

FX:
SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND UNDER

NARRATOR:
As I said, that was the fourth and final episode of A friend in need is a friend indeed. We hope you enjoyed the drama. Your local station will now talk about groundnuts and aflatoxin. Goodbye on behalf of Mr. Chibwe and all his family and friends.

FX:
SIGNATURE TUNE UP AND OUT

PRESENTER:
A friend in need is a friend indeed was produced by ___. Thank you for listening. We will now open our phone and SMS lines. With us today is name of expert. He/she can answer your questions about groundnuts and aflatoxin and about good practices to avoid it. Our phone numbers are ___ and our SMS lines are ___.