Notes to broadcasters
In 2016, UNICEF estimated that at least 200 million girls and women had experienced female genital mutilation in 30 countries: 27 African countries, plus Yemen, Iraq, and Indonesia. Half of the women and girls in the world who have been subjected to female genital mutilation live in only three countries: Indonesia, Ethiopia, and Egypt, with populations of 256 million, 98 million and 89 million respectively, and where the estimated prevalence rates are 51%, 74%, and 92% respectively. In Africa, only the countries that forming a broad central band from west to east, including Egypt, are affected by FGM, but with significant differences in prevalence.
In Senegal, the region of Kolda is one of the localities most affected by the practice. It is a tradition that leaves its victims scarred with a lot of consequences: pain, hemorrhage, infection, and trauma. The after effects are persistent and can lead to frigidity, complications in childbirth, and sometimes, death.
In this radio script, a midwife, a victim, and a former practitioner discuss the different types of female genital mutilation and the consequences, as well as the reasons for the practice, and the efforts to eradicate it.
To produce a similar program on female genital mutilation, you may wish to draw inspiration from this text. If you choose to present it as part of your health program, you can use voices to represent the different contributors. In this case, please tell your audience at the very beginning of the program that the voices are those of actors and not of the actual participants.
If you are creating your own programs on female genital mutilation, talk to people who have been subjected to the practice in your area, talk to their families, talk to those who perform it, and talk to medical experts. You may wish to ask them the following questions:
- How do people in your area perceive female genital mutilation?
- What are the different procedures?
- What are the consequences of FGM?
- Is there any legislation that prohibits the practice? If so, is it effective?
- Why does such a dangerous practice still persist?
Estimated duration with music, intro and extro, is 15-20 minutes.
Practiced for traditional or at times religious reasons with a view to preserving the girl’s virginity until marriage, these acts involve the total or partial removal of the external parts of a woman’s genitalia. This ritual is considered by the societies that accept it as a required passage to initiate a young girl into respecting traditions, to her future life as a wife and mother, and to moral values such as modesty and discipline.
However, according to experts, female genital mutilation has enormous health and psychological consequences. In an effort to punish the perpetrators of these practices, Senegal adopted Law No. 99-05 in 1999. Unfortunately, years after its implementation, this law does not seem to deter some practitioners who continue to defy the ban. The practice is still going on in this part of Senegal.
Good morning, dear listeners, today we are going to talk about female genital mutilation in all its forms and the risks to the victims. To talk about it, we have interviewed a health worker, a victim, and a former practitioner.
Aissatou Dieng is a midwife at the Kolda health district, Mariama Gnamadio, a victim of genital mutilation, and Maimouna Kandé, a former practitioner.
Please explain to us the different types of female genital mutilation.
Mrs. Kandé, why did you abandon this practice?
Thank you for your attention and see you soon.
Abscess: A localized collection of pus in tissues, organs, or confined spaces usually because of an infection
Anaemia: A condition in which you lack enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body’s tissues. Having anemia can make you feel tired and weak.
Fetal pain: During childbirth, the baby may suffer from a lack of oxygen.
Obstetric fistula: A hole between the birth canal and bladder and/or rectum caused by prolonged, obstructed labour without access to timely, high-quality medical treatment.
Contributed by: Amy Keita, journalist, Dakar, Senegal
Reviewed by: Diao Hawa Kandé, Director, Office of Gender Equality, Inspection of Kolda Academy, Ministry of National Education, Senegal.
Mariama Gnamadio, 48, March 27, 2020
Aissatou Dieng, midwife, Kolda health district, March 29, 2020
Maimouna Kandé, 66, April 1, 2020
Law 99-05 of January 29, 1999 penalizing the practice of female genital mutilation in Senegal. http://www.africanchildforum.org/clr/Legislation%20Per%20Country/Senegal/senegal_fgm_1999_fr.pdf
Andro, A. and Lesclingand, M., 2017. Les mutilations génitales féminines dans le monde. Population et Société, number 543, pages 1-4. https://www.cairn.info/revue-population-et-societes-2017-4-page-1.htm#
This resource is undertaken with the financial support of the Government of Canada provided through Global Affairs Canada.